What is the difference between a hub and a switch?
- A hub passes information to all hosts on the network.
- A switch passes information to only the designated hosts on the network.
What is HTTP and what port does it use?
- HyperText Transfer Protocol
- Port 80
What is HTTPS and what port does it use?
- HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure
- Port 443
What is FTP and what port does it use?
- File Transfer Protocol
- Port 20 and 21
What is SSH and what port does it use?
What is DHCP?
- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
- Issues address upon connection to the network with a lease period.
What is TCP
- Transmission Control Protocol
- Establishes a connection before data is exchanged and allows sequencing to verify messages are in the proper order.
What is UDP?
- User Datagram Protocol
- Does not establish a connection or sequencing; instead it focuses on speed of transmission.
What is ICMP?
- Internet Control Message Protocol
- Tells systems when they are trying to connect remotely if the other end is available.
What is DNS?
- Domain Name System
- The internet's phonebook
What is a firewall?
- Keeps stuff from here talking to stuff over there
- The bouncer of a network
What is a proxy server?
a proxy server caches the contents of websites and handles the heavy lifting of access and retrieval for users. Proxy servers can also maintain a list of blacklisted and whitelisted websites so as to prevent users from getting easily preventable infections.
What is a subnet mask?
- A subnet mask dictates the size of the network.
- Allows networks to be split in to logical sections.
What is the difference between a Workgroup and a Domain?
A workgroup is a collection of systems each with their own rules and local user logins tied to that particular system. A Domain is a collection of systems with a centralized authentication server that tells them what the rules are.
How does Tracert work and what protocol does it use?
- Allows you to see exactly what routers you touch as you move along the chain of connections to your final destination.
- ICMP protocol
What is an IDS?
- Intrusion Detection System
- two basic variations: Host Intrusion Detection Systems and Network Intrusion Detection Systems.
What is telnet?
a very small and versatile utility that allows for connections on nearly any port.
What are sticky ports?
Allow you to set up your network so that each port on a switch only permits one (or a number that you specify) computer to connect on that port by locking it to a particular MAC address.
What is ARP?
- Address Resolution Protocol
- allows for the mapping of IP addresses to MAC addresses.
What are Shadow Copies?
a versioning system in place on Windows operating systems.
What is port forwarding?
allow for specific traffic to be automatically forwarded on to a particular destination.
What does it mean when you receive an NTFS Error: 5?
When trying to copy elements from areas that have restricted permissions, or when trying to copy files to an area that has restricted permissions, you may get this error which basically means “Access denied”.
What is the difference between a Forest, a Tree, and a Domain?
- Forest: A collection of trees is bundled together into a Forest.
- Tree: A tree is a collection of domains bundled together by a common domain trunk, rules, and structure.
- Domain: A Domain is a collection of these organizational Unit's as well as the policies and other rules governing them.
What is SNMP?
- Simple Network Management Protocol
- SNMP enabled devices broadcast information about possible errors that can be picked up by programs that know what to look for.
What is the loopback address and what is it used for?
- 127.0.0.1 or localhost
- Verifies that TCP/IP is configured correctly on the NIC.
What are the layers of the OSI model and how many?
- Seven layers:
- Data Link
What is the maximum length of a ehternet cable?
The maximum length is 100 meters which includes 90 meters of cable between the patch panel and the wall jack plus 5 meters on each side of stranded cable from the jack to the device.
What is the job of the network layer?
- Deals with routing, switching, and transmission of data from one point to another.
- Also responsible for error handling and packet sequencing.
How would you determine connection path between a local host and a server?
- Allows information about the route used to reach the server including routers or switches passed through.
What is ipconfig for?
- a command that determines: TCP/IP settings, DHCP configuration, DNS, Default Gateway, and Subnet mask.
- Also able to change DHCP settings including /release and /renew
What is a VPN?
- Virtual Private Network
- Allows users to connect privately to a network over a public network.
What is the difference between network gateway and a firewall?
A network gateway joins two networks together and a network firewall protects a computer network against unauthorized incoming or outgoing access. Network firewalls may be hardware devices or software programs.
What is the difference between IPS and a firewall?
The primary function of a firewall is to prevent/control traffic flow from an untrusted network (outside). A firewall is not able to detect an attack in which the data is deviating from its regular pattern, whereas an IPS can detect and reset that connection as it has inbuilt anomaly detection.
What is packet filtering?
Packet filtering is the process of permitting or blocking ip packets based on source and destination addresses, ports, or protocols.
CMD: What is ping used for?
Verifies connectivity between two nodes on a network.
CMD: What is nslookup for?
Queries DNS servers and provides the ability to manage the settings for accessing those servers.
CMD: What is netstat for?
Displays TCP/IP statistics and details about TCP/IP components and connections on a host.
CMD: What is arp for?
Provides a way of obtaining information from an manipulating a device's ARP table.
What type of cabling must be used when running cable in the roof or below the floor?
What are the three tenets of the standard security model?
What website would you use to help with subnetting?