Bio 93 Lecture 18

  1. How does a cell regulate and control the cell cycle?
    checkpoints
  2. Define checkpoints:
    critical control points where stop and go signals regulate the cycle
  3. What checkpoint did 93stop trigger according to the data?
    at the end of G1
  4. I f a cell does not receive a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint:
    the cell exists the cell cycle and goes into G0, a nondividing stage
  5. ______ give go-ahead signals at G1 and G2 checkpoints
    Cdks (cyclin-dependant kinases)
  6. What do growth factors do?
    stimulates surrounding cells to divide
  7. What happens when cell cycle regulations fails?
    cancer
  8. Cancer cells lose two aspects of a normal cell which are:
    anchorage dependence and density-dependent inhibation
  9. Anchorage dependence:
    cells require a surface for division
  10. Density-dependent inhibation
    • cells form a single layer
    • cells wont divide if there isn't enough space around them
  11. Proto-oncogene:
    • a normal cellular gene corresponding to an oncogene
    • has the potential to become cancer but that requires some alteration to become an oncogene
  12. Oncogene:
    a gene found in viruses or as part of the normal genome that is involved in triggering cancerous characteristics
  13. Tumor-suppressor genes
    genes whose normal products inhibit cell division
  14. What are think is best ways to cause uncontrollable cell division?
    • Express an oncogene to overstimulate cell cycle
    • Lose a tumor suppressor gene to remove inhibitory signaling of cell cycle
  15. The primary transcript of a gene contains
    introns
  16. Substrate-level phosphorylation refers to:
    Generation of ATP and ADP from a phosphorylated substrate
  17. A cell with a mutation in the gene that codes for actin would be most likely to show disruption in
    Formation of the cleavage furrow
  18. The formation of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation requires the use of:
    enzymes
Author
jocelyn0399
ID
336070
Card Set
Bio 93 Lecture 18
Description
Midterm 2
Updated