1. Role of vet in managing behavior cases (8?)
    • first contact with O/annual exams
    • behavior is a MEDICAL discipline!
    • Client EDUCATION, prevention and compliance. Counsel BEFORE there is a problem
    • Be a resource: bonds client to practice, esp if O declines referral
    • promote low-stress, fear-free environments at home and at vet hospital. 
    • promote human-animal bond
    • decrease pet relinquishment
    • improve pet's QOL
  2. When to refer to a behavior specialist
    • Outside the scope of your expertise or comfort level
    • If O is considering euthanasia
    • If O requests referral
    • If P is not responding to current behavior modification/therapy
  3. Separation anxiety
    • recurrent distress associated with actual or perceived absence of attachment figure - distress ONLY when alone.  Usu hyper-attached to one or more family members. Anxious when recognize departure cues, exuberant greetings on return. 
    • tx: environmental changes, behavior modification (independence, uncouple departure cues, graduated departures), pharmaceuticals.  Avoid controllable triggers. 
    • Dogs are PANICKING. Medicate early to prevent dysregulation of stress response and escalation of anxiety.  
    • Fluoxetine (SSRI), Clomipramine (TCA), Pheromones, Benzodiazepines (alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam), Trazodone (SARI), Clonidine (alpha-2 agonist)
  4. Phobias, esp storm phobias
    • markedly exaggerated irrational responses to a noxious stimulus, whether or not the stimulus has caused harm to the animal. 
    • Thunderstorm phobias are PROBABLY noise phobias.  Often co-morbidity with separation anxiety. 
    • Storm phobias: anticipate, modify environment, CC and DS, Thundershirt, pharm (event drug = short-acting, Trial dose, maintenance medication = daily). Sileo for noise aversion.
    • desensitize: make a recording and play it really low all the time, every few days you turn the volume up a tiny bit.
  5. Environmental managment of behavior probs
    • ID and remove triggers (block view of outdoor cats)
    • Set the pet up to succeed (SAFE area)
    • Environmental enrichment (food-dispensing toys)
    • change behavioral function of area (put bowls or beds where animal eliminates)
    • make area/object inaccessible (chewed objects out of reach)
    • make area/object undesirable (motion-activated sprays)
  6. Reinforcement
    • reinforcement: makes behavior MORE likely to recur
    • Punishment: makes behavior LESS likely to recur
    • Positive: stimulus APPLIED (not necessarily good)
    • Negative: stimulus REMOVED (not necessarily bad)
  7. Desensitization
    • part of behavioral modification
    • repeatedly expose a pet to a stimulus that typically causes fear, anxiety or aggression, but at a level that does NOT cause the response
    • then GRADUALLY increase intensity while staying below threshold for response
    • often used in conjunction with counter-conditioning
  8. Counter-conditioning
    • changing an animal's response to a stimulus (not un-learning, just making a NEW response)
    • KEY to behavioral modification
    • conditioning = learning
    • usu a combination of classical conditioning (pair aversive stimulus with something pleasant), response substitution (reinforce a behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable), desensitization (step-by-step process of weakening of unwanted response - gradual increase of intensity)
  9. Habituation/flooding vs desensitization
    • Desensitization = gradual increase of stimulus without a response
    • flooding = High constant level of stimulus until no more response. Not recommended - welfare issues

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  10. why behavior is an integral part of vet med
    • fearful animals cause injuries, which are expensive!
    • the hospital is scary!
  11. ID fear and anxiety in cat
    • high urinary cortisol, BP, temp, HR, RR, blood glc
    • crouching, lowered head, ears out/lowered or flattened, arched back, paws drawn in towards body, tail swishing. 
    • Dilated pupils, vocalizing
    • about to bite: sudden pupil dilation, piloerection, fast jerky tail mvmt, swatting, vocalization, direct stare with open mouth vocalization
  12. ID fear and anxiety in dog
    • aggression to eliminate a threat.  usu fear-based, but once it's practiced it will continue.
    • yawning, lip licking, brief body freeze, 'whale eye', head turn, shaking, tense jaw, low tail carriage, piloerection
  13. help reduce pet fear and anxiety and prevent injuries
    • pheromones (Feliway vs Adaptil)
    • travel anxiety: nausea? Acclimate to crate. Put crate in seatbelt, ThunderCap. 
    • Pharmaceuticals: trial dose for paradox! Event drugs vs maintenance meds.
  14. explain importance of minimizing fear and anxiety in vet hospital
    • stressed cats = cats that don't return.  O will seek out low-stress experience. 
    • reduce fear/anxiety for pet and client. 
    • Better bond with O and P, see P more = better care. 
    • fewer injuries
    • enhanced efficiency, productivity, job satisfaction for veterinary team.
  15. Low-stress handling and fear-free vet visits
    • pheromones
    • Feliway: synthetic analog of feline facial hormone, emotional stabilization, reassures cat in stressful situation
    • Adaptil: synthetic analog of canine appeasing hormone emitted by bitch at whelping.
    • dogs: Lots of treats! Meds BEFORE when appropriate. Right into room, calming caps, keep with O if helpful.
    • Cats: acclimate cat to carrier, feliway, meds BEFORE, separate waiting area/schedule separately, allow O and cat to wait in room, towel restraint. LESS IS MORE, hands-off. DON'T let them get upset, give them time to regain equilibrium. Top-loading carrier.
  16. significance of elimination problems
    • most common feline behavior problem, high reason for euth.  
    • House soiling and urine marking. 
    • 9% of cats within 3mo of adoption.  50% of cats with LUTD. 
  17. diagnosis and treatment for elimination
    • HX is most critical tool
    • dx categories: medical, house soiling (horizontal surfaces), marking behavior (vertical or horizontal, rarely fecal)
    • R/O medical probs
    • House soiling: investigate anxiety issues, litter box, remove the cause, re-establish litter box use, prevent access to soiled areas
    • Spraying: usu vertical surfaces. Intact males. ID and remove triggers, neuter, deter outside cats from visiting, block window, separate household cats, indoor/outdoor access, "piddle pants"
    • tx: decrease cat pop, litter box hygiene, L-shaped boxes or spray panel, meds (SSRI or TCA), + feliway
  18. 5 pillars of a Healthy Feline Environment
    • 1. Provide a safe, secluded place to hide
    • 2. Provide multiple and separate key environmental resources
    • 3. provide opportunity for play and predatory behavior
    • 4. provide consistent and predictable human-cat social interaction
    • 5. Provide an environment that respects the importance of a cat's sense of smell.
  19. Feline idiopathic cystitis
    • can be obstructive or non
    • acute and self-limiting or chronic and persistent. 
    • COmplex interactions between body systems: urologic, neurologic, endocrine
    • Increased bladder wall permeability: abnormal GAG layer, uroepithelial health, submucosal edema, dilated vessels and hemorrhage, increased mast cell infiltration
    • chronic activation of the stress response system (neuroendocrine)
    • increased epithelial permeability - urine reaches afferent neurons, leading to local inflammation.
  20. stereotypes, compounds involved and examples in horses
    • a repeated relatively invariant sequence of movements that has no obvious purpose
    • dopamine and norepi involved. 
    • Opiates may also be involved (naloxone helps)
    • Occur when can't control environment. Indicates poor welfare.
    • oral: cribbing, wood chewing
    • locomotor: stall walking, weaving, pawing, kicking
    • predisposed by lack of contact with other horses, non-straw bedding, more concentrates/less roughage, three meals a day
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Vb behavior