Chapter 21/23 Review

  1. The tunica media is responsible for _________________ and vasodilation
  2. The femoral artery is an extension of which artery in the abdomen?
    External iliac artery
  3. Where is most of the blood pooled in the body?
    Veins and Venules
  4. Which vessel supplies blood to the liver.
    Hepatic artery
  5. What is a DVT? How can it be prevented?
    Deep vein thrombosis, prevented by early ambulation
  6. The most important form of capillary exchange is___________________.
    Simple Diffusion
  7. What is colloid osmotic pressure?
    The force that attracts water to the capillaries from the interstitial fluid
  8. What is filtration?
    A force that is driven by hydrostatic pressure from the heart that causes fluids and electrolytes to leave the capillaries and enter the interstitial space
  9. What is cardiac output?
    The amount of blood that exits the blood per minute
  10. What factors increase systemic vascular resistance?
    Increase in viscosity of blood, in arterial constriction, and increase length of vessel
  11. The cardiac integrating center is located in the __________     ___________.
    Medulla Oblongata
  12. What’s the most common pathology of the cardiovascular system?
  13. What is the relationship between ANP and blood pressure?
    Atrial-natriuretic peptide lowers BP if volume is too high
  14. The artery behind the knee is called  ________________.
    Popliteal artery
  15. Digested food enters the liver via the _______________  ____________.
    Hepatic portal vein
  16. Where do the coronary arteries originate from?
    Ascending aorta
  17. What does a patent foramen ovale do after birth?
    Deoxygenated and oxygenated blood mix
  18. The intestines are supplied by which artery?
    Superior mesenteric artery
  19. What does the jugular vein do?
    External drains the face, head, and neck, internal drains the brain
  20. How do ACE inhibitors act to lower BP?
    ACE inhibitors make angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2, which lowers BP
  21. What does increased capillary permeability lead to?
  22. What are vasa vasorum?
    Tiny vessels that supply the blood vessels
  23. Know the Circle of Willis.  Is the middle cerebral part of the circle?
    Not part of the circle
  24. The popliteal artery is a continuation of the ____________   ________.
    Femoral artery
  25. How do the basilic and Cephalic veins connect?
    Median cubital vein
  26. The Azygoud vein drains into the _________   __________   _________.
    Superior vena cava
  27. What signals the production of Renin from the kidneys?
    Low blood pressure
  28. What does ADH do?
    Increases water reabsorption, increases BP, secreted in response to thirst
  29. What does atrial natriuretic hormone do?
    Lowers blood pressure
  30. What is anaphylactic shock?  What’s it caused by?
    Severe allergic reaction, lowers cardiac output
  31. Tunica Interna
    forms the inner lining of a blood vessel
  32. Tunica Media
    a muscular and connective tissue layer, relatively thick layer comprising mainly of smooth muscle cells and substantial amounts of elastic fibers
  33. Tunica Externa
    The outer covering of a blood vessel composed mostly of elastic and collagen fibers. Also called the adventitia.
  34. How to calculate mean arterial pressure from B/P?
    MAP = (Dia x 2) + Sys / 3
  35. Functions of the Lymphatic System
    Drains excess interstitial fluid, Transports dietary lipids ADEK Vitamins, Carries out immune responses
  36. What duct drains the left side of the body?
    Thoracic duct
  37. Where is MALT present?  What about tonsils?
    Mucosa Associated Lymphatic Tissue found in Peyers Patches Appendix, Tonsils
  38. What structure does white pulp surround in the spleen?
    Central artery
  39. Can the spleen supply the body with additional blood and act as a reservoir?
    Yes, carries small amounts of blood
  40. What do thymic corpuscles do? Regulatory T Cells?
    Thymic corpuscles may serve as sites of T cell death in the medulla, Regulatory T Cells or suppressor cells modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
  41. What does activated complement form that destroys bacterial cells?
    Membrane Attack Complex
  42. What is chemotaxis?
    White blood cells to the site of injury
  43. What are the first leukocytes to appear in infected tissue?
  44. What leukocytes give rise to macrophages?
  45. What cells in the immune system attack cancer cells?
    Natural Killer Cells
  46. What kind of lymphocyte can turn into a plasma cell?
    B Cells
  47. In the thymus, what is negative selection?
    Removing T cells that are reacting against themselves
  48. What part of the antibody molecule binds foreign antigens?
    The variable region
  49. Know the immunoglobulins and know which ones cross the placenta
    IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
  50. What cells lyse cells and produce cytokines?
    Cytotoxic cells
  51. IgG
    Most abudant about 80% of all antibodies and able to cross placenta, found in blood, lymph, and intestines
  52. IgA
    Makes up 10-15% of all antibodies, found in sweat, tears saliva, and breast milk
  53. IgM
    About 5-10% of all antibodies, found in lymph
  54. IgD
    About 0.2% of all antibodies, found on surfaces of B Cellsq
  55. IgE
    Less than 0.1% of all antibodies, found on mast cells and basophile
Card Set
Chapter 21/23 Review