exam 3 A&P

  1. name the specialized capillaries that absorb large fat molecules in the digestive tract
  2. name the primary lymphatic organs
    thymus and red bone marrow
  3. name the site where stem cells divide and become immune-competent
    red bone marrow and the thymus
  4. name secondary organs tissues of the lymphatic system
    *sites where immune response occur
    • lymph nodes
    • spleen lymphatic nodules (follicles)
  5. why are the thymus, lymph nodes and spleen considered organs
    each is surrounded by connective tissue capsule
  6. what is the difference between cell mediated immunity and antibody mediated immunity?
    • -The humoral response (or antibody‐mediated response) involves B cells that recognize antigens or pathogens that are circulating in the lymph or blood 
    • -The cell‐mediated response involves mostly T cells and responds to any cell that displays aberrant MHC markers, including cells invaded by pathogens, tumor cells, or transplanted cells.
  7. First line of Defense: Physical factors (9)
    • 1. epidermis of skin
    • 2. mucus membranes
    • 3. mucus
    • 4. hairs 
    • 5. cilia 
    • 6. lacrimal apparatus
    • 7. saliva
    • 8. defecation and vomiting
  8. First Line of Defense: Chemical Factors (4)
    • 1. Sebum
    • 2. Lysozymes 
    • 3.Gastric juice
    • 4.vaginal secretions
  9. Second Line of Defense:  Internal Defenses (9)
    • 1. antimicrobial substances
    • 2. interferon's IFN's
    • 3. complement system
    • 4. iron binding agents
    • 5. antimicrobial proteins 
    • 6.natural killer cells
    • 7.phagocytes
    • 8. inflammation 
    • 9.fever
  10. identify natural killer cells ( their function)
    kill infected target cells by releasing granules that contain perforin and granzymes; phagocytes then kill released microbes 

    large lymphocytes that attack  and destroy bacteria, transplanted tissue, host cells infected with viruses or turned cancerous--responsible for immuno surveillance
  11. identify complement system
    causes cytolysis of  microbes ; promotes phagocyosis; contributes to inflammation
  12. role of IFN's Interferons
    protect uninfected host cells from viral infection
  13. role of fever (function)
    intensifies efects of inteferons ; inhibits growth of some microbes, speeds up body reactions and aids in repair
  14. function of iron binding proteins
    inhibit growth of certain bacteria by reducing amount of available iron
  15. function of antimicrobial proteins
    have broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities and attract dendritic and mast cells
  16. function of phagocytes
    ingest foreign  particulate matter
  17. role of inflammation in the body
    confines and destroys microbes, initiates tissue repair
  18. lymphocytes resist infection responding to:
    • -invading pathogens such as bacteria or viruses
    • -abnormal body cells such as cancer cells
    • -foreign proteins such as toxins
  19. nmae the main duct responsible for the return of lymph to blood
    thoracic duct
  20. name the major lymph collecting vessels (4)
    • superficial and lymphatic vessels
    • thoracic duct 
    • right lymphatic duct
    • cisternal chyli
  21. the right lymphatic duct receives lymph from what regions of the body?
    -it receives lymph from the right jugular, right subclavian and right bronchomediastinal trunks

    - receives lymph from below the diaphragm, left arm, left side of head, neck and thorax, empties
  22. what is the main difference between lymph anf interstitial fluid
    • -location is the main difference
    • -lymph is located within lymphatic vessels and lymphatic tissues
  23. Name the functions of the Lymphatic System ( 5)
    • 1. drain excess interstitial fluid: fluid from the spaces in between tissues and return it to the blood
    • 2. transports dietary lipids
    • 3.carry out immune responses
    • 4.blood volume maintenance
    • 5.production, maintenance and distribution of lymphocytes
  24. what is the primary function of the Lymphatic system?
    production, maintenance and distribution of lymphocytes
  25. lymphocytes mus do 2 things:
    • 1. detect where the problem is
    • 2.be able to reach the site of injury/ infection
  26. what does the lymphatic system consist of?
    lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymphoid tissue, lymphoid organs, lymphocytes and supporting phagocytic cells
  27. where do afferent lymphatics carry lymph?
    towards the lymph node
  28. where do efferent lymphatics carry lymph
    e for exit
    carry lymph away from the lymph node
  29. what is the role of a lymph node
    purify lymph
  30. where are lymphoid nodules found?
    respiratory tract, digestive tract and the urinary tract
  31. are lymphatic nodules surrounded by by a capsule?
  32. what is MALT
    MALT is the same as lymphoid nodules. Lymph nodules are called MALT because they are in the lamina propria in the tract of G.I, G.U, reproductive and respiratory air ways
  33. describe the anatomy of the spleen
    bi lobed organ located in the mediastinum between the sternum and the aorta
  34. thymic macrophages ___ the debris of dead and dying cells.
    clear out
  35. surviving t cells enter the ___
  36. where does the right lymphatic duct empty
    right subclavian vein
  37. identify the difference between specific and non specific defense
    non specific defense: do not distinguish between threats

    -specific defense: protects against particular test
  38. what does the specific defense do
    • protects the body from particular threats
    • it depends of circulation of lymphocytes
  39. what is the largest mass of lymph tissue
    the spleen
  40. the spleen consist of 2 pulps. Name them.
    red pulp and white pulp
  41. identify white pulp
    similar to lymphoid nodules, lymphatic tissue, consisting of mostly of lymphocytes and macrophages arranged around branches of the spelenic artery called central arteries
  42. identify red pulp
    contains rbc's; consisting of  blood filled venous sinuses and cords of splenic tissue claled splenic cords or bilroth cords
  43. name the functions of the spleen
    • -removal of abnormal blood cells and other components
    • -storage of iron
    • -initiation of specific immune response
  44. one of the functions of the spleen is to initiate immune response please describe this function in further detail
    • -removal of macrophages of ruptured or worn out blood rbc's and platelets 
    • storage of platelets up to 1/3 of the body's supply 
    • -production of blood cells during fetal life
  45. identify or describe the complement system
    • destroy target cell membranes
    • stimulate inflammation
    • enhance phagocytosis
  46. what makes up the complement system
    a group of normally inactive proteins in blood plasma and on blood plasma membranes makes up the complement system
  47. what are the effects of the complement system
    • stimulation of inflammation
    • enhancement of phagocytosis
    • attraction of phagocytes
    • destruction of target cell membranes
  48. identify inflammation
    localized tissue response to an injury producing swelling, heat, redness and pain
  49. nonspecific immune defense: fever
    identify exogenous pyrogens
    bacteria and toxin produce (foreign substances that came from outside of the body) that causes a high fever
  50. nonspecific immune response fever: identify endogenous pyrogens
    IL1 Interlukin 1
    • neutrophils macrohages attack pathogens, they secrete a variety of peptides that act as an endogenous pyrogen
    • ex: IL1- promotes helper T cells acts on the hypothalmus to cause fever (things from within the body that cause fever)
Card Set
exam 3 A&P
exam 3 study guide