1. how can lipids be extracted
    with organic solvents
  2. role of lipids in cell
    • storage-good source of energy; fat
    • structure-membrane
    • pigments-light absorbs
    • biological signals-fat soluble vitamins, hormones
  3. important naming convention for lipids
    • start at the carbon on the carboxylic carbon
    • Δ where the double bond is and number
  4. the more double bonds a fatty acid has...
    the lower the melting temp and the more double bonds it has
  5. know what triaglycerols/rides and glycerophospholipids look like
  6. role of phospholipases in lipid analysis
    • degrades cellular membranes, decreases blood pressure, prevents coagulation
    • in the venom of snakes
  7. be familiar with the  4 ring steroid nucleus
  8. Membrane compostition
    • contains lipids, sterols, and proteins
    • membrane composition is associated with its function
  9. micelles
    spheres of dozens to thousands of lipid molecules
  10. lipid vesicle
    • small bilayer with central aqueous cavity that carry molecules
    • fuse readily w/ cell membranes or w/ each other
  11. types and rates of lipid diffusion
    • lateral-fast
    • transeverse-moving from one layer to the other
  12. integral proteins
    membrane proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer
  13. peripheral proteins
    • protein associated w/ integral membrane proteins 
    • not embedded in the LB
    • can be easily dissociated from the integral proteins
  14. amphitropic proteins
    • found in the cytosol and membrane
    • linked to membrane during regulatory events
    • relies on the attachment of lipids on the membrane
  15. role of sds in protein denaturation/membrane protein isolation
    • helps integral proteins to remain soluble
    • sodium dodecyl sulfate
    • applies a negative charge to protein to denature them
  16. amino acids that may be in the membrane
    glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), valine (Val), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), proline (Pro), phenylalanine (Phe), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp)
  17. 7 transmembrane segment a-helix motif
    structure of the G Protein- coupled receptors
  18. GPCRs
    • G-coupled protein receptors
    • imbedded protein that acts as a coupler for g proteins
    • ligand induces conformation change to make it active
  19. membrane anchors
    • palmitoylation
    • myristoylation
    • farnesyation
    • geranylgeranylation
    • another one
  20. properties of phase separation
    • nucleolus separated by phase
    • RNA cell signaling molecules dictate phase
    • phase separation depends on Protein properties
  21. flippase
    moves lipid from outer to cytosolic leaflet
  22. bacteriorhodopsin
    a 7-transmembrane segment protein
  23. uncatalyzed membrane transport
    • non-specific, non saturable kinetics
    • passive diffusion-ion channels
  24. catalyzed membrane transport
    • specific, saturable kinetics
    • facilitated diffusion-passive transporters
    • active transporters-atp and gradient driven
  25. role of permeases
    • increase rate 
    • facilitated diffusion
    • creates hydrophilic environment for glucose
    • enzyme-like (lowers energetic barrier)
  26. hyperbolic equation for transport rxn kinetics
    V=Vmax[S]out/ (K+ [S] out)
  27. relationship between concentration gradients and G
    • ΔG=RTln(C2/C1)+ZFΔψ
    • Z=Charge
    • F=faradya constant(96.5)
    • R=8.314
  28. SERCA
    • Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic reticulum Ca pump
    • ATP provideds energy for active transport of Ca
  29. uniport, symport, antiport
    • uni-1 substrate moves
    • sym-two substrates move at one time
    • anti- 2 substrates move through in opp. directions at one time
  30. features of ion channels
    • hydrophilic pores
    • ion selective
    • sometimes gated
    • not 'saturable'
    • diffusion limited
    • single gate
Card Set