Human AP Chapter 12

  1. what are the 4 major regions of the brain
    cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem
  2. preforms higher mental functions
    Interperets sensory stimuli
    plans and initiates movement
    Cerebrum
  3. processes, integrates, and relays information
    Maintains homeostatsis
    Regulates biological rhythms
    Diencephalon
  4. Monitors and coordinates movement
    Cerebellum
  5. Maintains homeostasis
    Controls certain reflexes
    Monitors movement
    Integrates and relays information
    Brainstem
  6. large superior part of the brain diveded into left and right hemispheres
    cerebrum
  7. oldest part of the brain from and evolutionary standpoint
    brainstem
  8. like the brain, the spinal cord has na internal cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid called the
    central canal
  9. contains myelinated axons
    consist of both the brian and the spinal cord
    White matter
  10. made up of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons
    Consists of both the brain and the spinal cord more particularly the outer few millimeters and scattered throughout its deeper portions
    gray matter
  11. receive input from and send output to the different clusters of cell bodies and dnedrites in the cerebral gray matter, called nuclei
    Tracts
  12. different clusters of cell bodies and dendrites in the cerebral gray matter
    nuclei
  13. shallow grooves in the cerebrum
    Sulci
  14. deep groves in the cerebrum
    Fissures
  15. The two hemispheres are separated from eachother by a long fissure called the
    Longitudinal Fissure
  16. between the Sulci are elevated ridges called
    Gyri
  17. what are the 5 lobes of the cerebrum
    • Frontal lobe
    • Parietal lobe
    • temporal lobe
    • occipital lobe
    • insulas
  18. the posterior boundary of the frontal lobe
    central sulcus
  19. responsible for planning and executing movement and complex mental functions such as behavior, conscience, and personality
    Frontal Lobe
  20. responsible for processing and integrating sensory information and function in attention
    posterior to the frontal lobes
    Parietal lobes
  21. which lobe preforms function related to hearing, language, memory and emotions
    Temporal lobe
  22. The neurons of this lobe process all information relating to vision
    Occipital lobes
  23. the neuron of this structure are currently though to have functions relating to taste and to our visceral organs 
    Visible only when you pry the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes apart at the lateral fissure
    Insulas
  24. the most complex par of the brain is the region of gray matter known as the
    Cerebral Cortex
  25. the majority of the cerebral cortex is the 
    also known as the "New Cortex"
    Neocortex
  26. though that does not involve the cerebral cortex
    Subcortical
  27. plans and executes movement
    Primary Motor Cortex
  28. are the first to receive and process sensory input
    Primary sensory cortices
  29. part of the neocortex that integrates different types of information
    Association areas
  30. areas that integrate one specific type of information only
    Unimodal association areas
  31. areas that integrate information from multiple different sources and appear to carry out many of our higher mental functions
    multimodal association areas
  32. most of the motor areas are located in the frontal lobes
    these areas contain _____ which are actually interneurons because they connect to other neuron instead of to skeletal muscle
    Upper Motor Neurons
  33. located anterior to the primary motor cortex
    Premotor cortex
  34. the two main areas of the cerebral cortex that deal with the somatic senses
    those pertaining to temperature or touch including vibration, pressure, stretch, and joint position
    • Primary somatosensory cortex
    • Somatosensory association cortex
  35. located in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe
    primary somatosensory cortex
  36. located posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex (s1)
    Somatosensory association cortex (s2)
  37. lies at the posterior end of the occipital lobe, is the first area to receive visual input. It feeds this iformation into the visual association areas
    Primary visual cortex
  38. process color, object movement, and depth
    Visual association areas
  39. sense of smell
    located in the insula and part of the parietal lboe
    Gustatory
  40. information pertaining to equilibrium and positional sense is processed by
    Vestibular areas
  41. sense of smell is processed by the
    Olfactory cortex
  42. the area responsible for  producing language
    Brocas area
  43. the area responsible for understanding language
    Wernicke's area
  44. has a number of functions, among which are modulating behavior, personality, learning, memory, and an individuals's psychological state.
    Prefrontal Cortex
  45. the areas perform a variety of tasks, including integration of sensory information, language, maintaining attention, recognition, and spatial awareness
    Parietal and temporal association cortices
  46. basal nuclei include
    • Caudate nucleus
    • putamen
    • globus pallidus
  47. primarily associated with movvement, disorders involving the basal nuclei and problems with behavior, cognition, and perception
    Basal nuclei
  48. connect the right and left cerebral hemispheres of the larges being the corpus callosum
    commissural fibers
  49. are C-shaped rings of gray matter that sit lateral to the lateral ventricles in each hemisphere. Named for its long slender tail that curls around and points anteriorly
    Caudate Nuclei
  50. lies posterior and inferior to the caudate nucleus and is connected to it via small bridges of gray mater. Both together are often referred to as the corpus striatum
    Putamen
  51. sits medial to the putamen, is named for the fact that it contains more myelinated fibers than the other basal nuclei and is thus paler
    globus pallidus
  52. communication tracts serve the purpose of
    Transmitting impulses
  53. commissural fibers
    connect the right and left cerrebral hemispheres
  54. what is the largest commissural fiber
    Sits in the middle of the brain at the base of the longitudinal fissure
    corpus callosum
  55. connects the cerebral cortex of one hemisphere with other areas of the same hemisphere
    projection fibers
  56. projection fibers condense around the diencephalon on the right and left sides to form two V-Shaped bands known as the
    Internal Capsules
  57. fibers restricted to a single hemisphere and connect the gray matter of cortical gyri with one another
    Association fibers
  58. the emotional brain 
    controls behavior, memory, pleasure, pain, and addiction
    Limbic system
  59. encircles the brain stem and corpus callosum
    Lie on inner border of cerebrum and floor of diencephalon
    Limbic System
  60. Anterior to the hippocampus
    structure who shape is also reflected in its name,
    greek work for almond
    amygdala
  61. fuction in the behavioral expression of emotion, particularly fear
    anterior to the hippocampus
    Amygdala
  62. what are the four structural components of the diencephalon
    • Central thalamus
    • epithalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Subthalamus
  63. 7 groups of nuclei
    Relays all sensor impulses except olfaction
    Conscious recognition of sensation
    Contributes to cognition
    Thalamus
  64. receive incoming information, process and integrate it, and then send it to specific motor or sensory areas of the cerebral cortex
    Specific Relay Nuclei
  65. generally these nuclei process information related to emotions, memory, and integration of sensory information from multiple source
    Association Nuclei
  66. these nuclei send information to broad areas of the cortex and the rest of the brain
    Current evidence indicates that they function in controlling arousal, consciousness, and the level of responsiveness and excitability of the cerebral cortex
    Nonspecific nuclei
  67. Primary regulator of homeostasis
    Regulates eating and drinking
    Controls autonomic nervous system
    Structurally and functionally associated with pituitary gland
    Hypothalamus
  68. endocrine organ
    the pituitary gland is attached to the inferior portion of the hypothalamus
    Secretes hormones that influence secretion from other endocrine glands throughout the body
    Pituitary Gland
  69. the pituitary gland is attached to the inferior portion of the hypothalamus by an extension referred to as the
    Infundibulum
  70. these structures receive input from the hippocampus, with which they play a role in regulating memory and behavior
    Mammillary bodies
  71. secretes melatonin
    Part of the epithalamus
    Pineal gland
  72. regulates sleep cycles
    melatonin
  73. emotional responses to olfactory stimuli
    Part of the epithalamus
    habenular nuclei
  74. 2nd larges region of the brain
    Attached to brain via bundles of white matter
    Regulates posture and balance
    Coordinates skilled, voluntary movements
    Compares intended vs actual movements
    Cerebellum
  75. connects the two cerebellar hemisphers
    Vermis
  76. the ridges on the cerebellar surface contains ridges known as
    Folia
  77. the 3 lobes of the cerebellum
    • Anterior lobe
    • Posterior lobe
    • Flocculonodullar lobe
  78. connect the cerebellum to the brain-stem and so form the only route by which information flows into and out of the cerebellum
    Cerebellar Peduncles
  79. the nuclei of this structure control many basic homeostatic functions, indluding maintenance of heart rate and breathing rythm
    Also controls numerous reflexes which are programmed, automatic responses to stimuli and function in movement, sensation, and maintaining alertness
    Brainstem
  80. located on the brainstem
    aka the mesencephalon relays motor impulses
    (cerebral cortex to pons)
    relays sensory impulses (spinal cord to thalamus)
    Coordinates movements- eyes to visual stimuli
    Head and trunk to auditory stimuli
    Midbrain
  81. Origin for cranial nerves III and IV
    Site of reticular formation
    Midbrain
  82. Located on the brainstem
    Continuous with medulla oblongata
    Tracts connects spinal cord to the brain
    relays motor impulses from cerebrum to cerebellum
    Pneumtaxic & apneustic areas control respiration
    Pons
  83. Origin for cranial nerves V-VII
    Pons
  84. Located on the brainstem
    Center for vital reflexes ( heart rate, ventilation rate and vasoconstriciton)
    Center for coughing swallowing, vomiting, hiccupping and sneezing
    Relays sensory and motor info between brain and spinal cord
    Medulla Oblongata
  85. origin for cranial nerves VIII-XII
    Medulla oblongata
  86. Cranial Nerve X
    Vagus nerve
  87. are protective membranes made primarily of dense irregular collagenous connective tissue
    cranial meninges
  88. the outermost meninx
    thickest and toughest of the membranes
    dura mater
  89. deep to the dura mater another very narrow space, called the
    Housesa thin layer of serous fluid and certain veins that drain the brain
    Subdural Space
  90. the middle meninx
    resembles a spider web
    arachnoid mater
  91. the thinnest and innermost meninx is the
    Pia Mater
  92. The arachnoid and pia are separated by another narrow, fluid-filled space called the
    contains CSF and the major blood vessels of the brain
    Subarachnoid space
  93. attached to the inner surface of the bones of the cranial cavity; it functions as the periosteum of those bones and has an extensive blood supply that resides in the epidural space
    periosteal dura
  94. the inner, avascular layer that lies superficial to the arachnoid mater
    meningeal dura
  95. venous channels that drain CSF and deoxygenated blood from the brain's many veins
    dural sinuses
  96. the partition between the right and left cerebral hemispheres, and lies in the longitudinal cerebral fissure.
    Falx cerebri
  97. a large dural sinus called the ______ is situated superior to the falx cerebri
    Superior Sagittal sinus
  98. is the partition between the cerebellum and the occipital lobe of the cerebrum
    Tentorium Cerebelli
  99. separates the right and left cerebellar hemispheres
    Falx Cerebelli
  100. cavities in the brain
    ventricles
  101. ventricles within the cerebral hemispheres
    Lateral Ventricles
  102. 3rd ventricle is located within the
    Diencephalon
  103. 4th ventricle is located between
    The brain stem and cerebellum
  104. structures in the ventricles that produce CSF
    Choroid Plexuses
  105. results in too much CSF being formed by the choroid plexus
    Hydrocephalus
  106. keeps the CSF and brain extracellular fluid seperate from the blood
    Blood-brain-barrier
  107. composed primarily of nervous tissue and is responsible for both relaying and processing information.
    spinal cord
  108. The two primary function of the spinal cord
    • Relay Station
    • Processing Station
  109. the 3 spinal spinal meninges of the spinal cord in order from superficial to deep
    • The dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • and the pia mater
  110. thin pieces of the spinal pia called _________ extend outward through the arachnoid an attach to the spinal dura
    Denticulate ligaments
  111. the spinal cord lacks a periosteal dura, so and _________ exists between the meningeal dura and the wall of the vertebral foramina. 
    Filled with veins and adipose tissue, which helps to cushion and protect the spinal cord
    Epidural space
  112. ________ is only a potential space in the spinal cord
    Subdural space
  113. in the spine and in the brain
    lies between the arachnoid and pia and is filled with a very thin layer of CSF
    Subarachnoid Space
  114. on the posterior side of the spinal cord is the narrow
    Posterior median sulcus
  115. on the anterior side of the spinal cord is a wide slit called the
    Anterior median fissure
  116. the end of the spinal cord forms the coneshaped
    Conus Medullaris
  117. At the level of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, the spinal pea gathers into a very thing structure known as the
    Filum terminale
  118. bulge on the spinal cord in the cervical region
    Cervical enlargement
  119. bulge on the spinal cord in the lumbar region
    Lumbar e
  120. attach to the cervical enlargement and the lumbar enlargement
    Fuse to form the spinal nerves of the upper and lower limbs
    Nerve Roots
  121. are part of the PNS, carry sensory and motor impulses to and from the spinal cord
    Spinal Nerves
  122. the bundle of spinal nerve roots is collectively called the _______
    Cauda Equina
  123. in the blood-cerebrospinal barrier: CSF must move through
    Ependymal Cells
  124. fluid based protection CSF will circulate from production sites to
    Subarachnoid sites
  125. CSF returns to bloodstream via
    Arachnoid Villi
  126. the terminal portion of spinal cord has __ vertebra
    12
  127. ____ pairs of spinal nerves named for where they emerge
    31
  128. __ cervical nerves
    8
  129. __ throacic nerves
    12
  130. ___ lumbar nerves
    5
  131. ___sacral nerves
    5
  132. ___ coccygeal nerves
    1
  133. spinal cord, gray matter
    Anterior, posterior, and lateral gray horns
    Spinal Cord
  134. White Matter
    Anterior, posterior lateral white columns
    Cortex
  135. The neuron of the anterior horn are concerned with
    Somatic Motor function
  136. The posterior hor contains cell bodies of neuron that are involved in processing both
    Somatic and Visceral incoming sensory information
  137. lateral horns are only present from the
    First thoracic vertebra to the lumbar portion of the cord
  138. The lateral horsn contain cell bodies of neuron responsible for
    motor control of the visceral via the autonomic nervous system
  139. each general region of spinal white matter is called a
    Funiculus
  140. the largest tracts are the ______ which help to control the skeletal muscles below the head and neck
    Corticospinal tracts
  141. Spinal Nerves, Dorsal roots detect
    Incoming sensory impulses
  142. Spinal cord, Ascending tracts
    Carry sensor impulses to the brain
  143. Spinal cord, Descending tracts
    Carry motor impulses FROM the brain
  144. Spinal Nerves, ventral roots
    Responsible for outgoing motor impulses
  145. where signals are interpreted
    Cerebral Cortex
  146. When the CNS has received all of the different sensory inputs, it integrates them into a single
    Perception
  147. what are the two basic types of sensations
    Special senses and general senses
  148. the general senses can be split into
    Somatic senses and visceral senses
  149. special senses pertain to
    vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell, and taste
  150. General senses pertain to
    sensory neurons in the skin, muscles, or wall of the organs
  151. general somatic senses pertain to the
    Skin, muscles, and joints
  152. General visceral senses pertain to
    the internal organs
  153. pertain to fine or discriminative touch and include vibration, 
    allows you to discriminate between different shapes and textures without visual input
    Tactile Senses
  154. also called crude touch
    often when a body part is numbed by local anesthesia, the sensation of pressure can still be detected, this is called
    Nondiscriminative touch
  155. senses that detect or are responsive to mechanical deformation in the skin, a joint, and or an organ
    most of the general somatic senses
    mechanical senses
  156. the sensory neuron that detects the initial stimulus in the PNS
    First-order neuro
  157. the central process of the pseudounipolar neuron then synapses on a ________ or an interneuron located in the posterior horn of the spinal cord or the brainstem
    second-order neuron
  158. the axons of second-order neuron generally synapse on ______ or interneurons in the thalamus
    these neurons deliver impulses to the cerebral cortex
    third-motor neuron
  159. the axons of neuron that transmit tactile sensory information about descriminatie touch travel with axons that convey information regarding proprioception or joint position, along tracts known as
    Posterior columns/ medial lemniscal system
  160. what are the two tracts located within the posterior columns
    • fasciculus gracilis
    • fasciculus cuneatus
  161. tracts that carries information from the lower limbs
    Fasciculus gracilis
  162. Tracts that carries information from the trunk, neck and upper limbs
    Fasciculus cuneatus
  163. Sensed in the PNS, Interpreted in the CNS
    Somatic and proprioceptive sensation
    Sensory
  164. proprioceptive sensation destination
    Somatosensory cortex
  165. have somatic and autonomic pathways
    originate in the primary motor cortex
    Motor
  166. senses paint, touch, temp 
    from spinal cord to thalamus
    Spinothalmic tracts/ anterolateral system
  167. carry voluntary motor commands
    descending motor commands
  168. carry sensory information to the brain
    Ascending sensory pathways
  169. controls muscles below head and neck via spinal nerves
    Corticospinal tracts
  170. controls muscles of head and neck via cranial nerves
    Corticonuclear tracts
  171. one of the main areas to which S1  axons send output is the
    Somatosensor association cortex
  172. the percepion of pain stimuli is called
    Nociception
  173. what are the special senses
    hearing taste smell and balance
  174. hearing;
    audition
  175. taste;
    gustation
  176. smell;
    Olfaction
  177. balance;
    vestibular sensation
  178. where is the primary visual cortex
    In the occipital lobe
  179. everything involved in a conciouse action such as the amount of force the muscle needs to preform the action and balance needed to preform the action
    Motor program
  180. Damage to any component of the basal nuclei system results in a
    Parkinson's disease
    Movement disorder
  181. the correction of motor error can occur over both the short and the long term by a process called
    Motor Learning
  182. damage to the cerebellum which makes fluid, well-coordinated movement nearly impossible
    Cerebellar ataxia
  183. two main systems devoted to homeostasis
    endocrine system and nervous system
  184. The homeostasis of vital function such as heat pumping, blood pressure, and digestion is largely controlled by the
    Autonomic nervouse system
  185. the main boss of the Autonomic nervous system is the
    hypothalamus
  186. the center that increases the rate and force of cardiac contraction and also causes blood vessels to narrow
    Vasopressor center
  187. decreases the rate and force of contraction of the heart and opens the blood vessels
    Vasodepressor
  188. neurotransmitter that helps control hunger in the hypothalamus
    orexin
  189. a reversible and normal suspension of consciousness
    Sleep
  190. another name for sleep cycle
    Circadian Rhythm
  191. when we fall asleep and progress through it stage, the amplitude of the wave progressively _____ and their frequency progressively _______
    • increases
    • decreases
  192. measure of brain wave activity
    Electroencephalogram
  193. awake, eyes close
    Alpha wave
  194. awake eyes open, mental activit: REM sleep
    Beta Waves
  195. Emotional distress; sleep stages 1-3
    Theta waves
  196. sleep stage 4
    Delta Waves
  197. preform the diverse group of task collectively known as
    Cognition
  198. the area of the cortex responsible for spatial awareness an attention
    parietal association cortex
  199. this area of cortex is primarily responsible for recognizing stimuli, especially complex stimuli such as faces
    Temporal association cortex
  200. the cortex area that is responsible for the majority of cognitive functions tha make up a person charactoer or personality
    Prefrontal cotex
  201. what are the function that appear to be lateralized
    • Emotional functions
    • attention
    • facial recognition
    • language-related recognition
  202. they type of memory that tends to include skills and associations that are largely unconscious.
    nondeclarative memory
  203. information in immediate and working memory is transferred into long-term memory , a process called
    Consolidation
  204. the mechanism by which hippocampal neurons encode long-term declarative memories seems to involve an increase in synaptic activity between associated neurons, called
    Long term potentiation
Author
Bnasty
ID
335974
Card Set
Human AP Chapter 12
Description
Chapter 12
Updated