the substance affects the mind and/or behavior
_________ produce the most dangerous physical withdrawal. Suddenly stopping can lead to _______
- Alcohol and tranquilizers
- seizures, strokes, or heart attacks in high risk patients
If a dental professional feels there may be an abuse problem, the _________ can aid in identifying a problem.
CAGE screening process
The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), has successfully identified ________ as two genes involved in the predisposition to alcohol dependence.
GABRA2 and CHRM2
Chronic use of marijuana can lead to
chronic bronchitis, xerostomia, and squamous metaplasia (cellular non-cancerous changes in the epithelial linings).
The autonomic (involuntary) effects of marijuana include
tachycardia, reduced peripheral resistance, and, with large doses, orthostatic hypotension
Some of the adverse effects of opioid use include
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Respiratory depression
Patients under the influence of cocaine should not receive any local anesthetic containing epinephrine for at least ______ after the last administration of cocaine
What is the most commonly abused opioid
Cocaine has potent pharmacologic effects on ____, _______, ______ neurons in the central nervous system (CNS).
dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin
The primary action of Amphetamine and methamphetamine which are ________ is to
- CNS stimulants
- increase synaptic dopamine by causing the release of dopamine stores into the synapse, which produces a dopamine “high”
Examples of Hallucinogens
- MDMA aka Ecstasy (Stimulant)
The primary psychoactive substances used as sedatives and hypnotics are _________ and, less commonly, _________.
- benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, temazepam)
- barbiturates (phenobarbital, secobarbital, mephobarbital)
Clinical side effects of the sedative-hypnotics are
hypotension and mild respiratory depression
Dilated pupils occurs in the use of ________. Pinpoint pupils occurs in the use of ________.
- hallucinogens and amphetamines
- morphine and related drugs, heroin, barbiturates
Alcohol is what type of drug, does what to the body and when used for drinking purposes is _______
- a depressant that slows the brain’s activities and the activity of the spinal cord
- ethyl alcohol or ethanol
More than 90%of ingested alcohol is converted into ________, then ______, and finally into
__________ by action of various liver enzymes
- carbon dioxide and water
Fatty liver is a __________ where the liver is ________ but of ________.
- yellow discoloration of the liver
- normal consistency
Fibrosis of the liver occurs when there is __________ in the liver (scarring).
excess fibrous connective tissue
Cirrhosis of the liver occurs when the ________.
scarring begins to kill liver cells
Persons that abuse alcohol have a diminished immune response including a
disturbed function of neutrophils
During alcohol use bleeding lesions may develop with ________ called ________
- desquamation of the stomach lining
- acute gastritis
Alcohol use increases the risk for many types of cancers, notably those of the
alimentary (organs of digestion) and respiratory tracts
Korsakoff’s Syndrome is the inability to ________. ___________ often precedes Korsakoff’s Syndrome. Characteristics include _________
- metabolize thiamine (Vitamin B1) efficiently
- Wernicke’s encephalopathy
- ataxia (clumsy walking/gait, ocular (sight) disturbances, and mental confusion (psychosis)
What are some characteristics that may be evident extra-orally on an alcohol dependent person
- Redness of forehead, cheeks, nose; acne rosacea; dilated blood vessels that produce spider angiomas on the nose
- Light yellowish brown may indicate jaundice from liver disease
- Angular cheilitis related to poor nutrition
- Parotid Glands Swelling
What are some Facial Dysmorphology that children with Fetal Alcohol syndrome might experience
- –Eyes: short eye openings.
- Thin upper lip, smooth philtrum.
- Midface: flattened, depressed; underdeveloped maxilla.
- Nose: short, upturned, with sunken nasal bridge.
- Micrognathia:(abnormal smallness of the jaws, especially the mandible).
- Ears: anomalies of shape and position