CS cardio condensed

  1. Left axis deviation is assoc with...
    emphysema, obesity, pregnancy, tricuspid atresia, left anterior hemiblock, hyperkalemia, and inferior MI are associated with...
  2. Right axis deviation assoc with..
    Anteriolateral MI, normal in children/thin adults, left posterior hemiblock are associated with...
  3. NW axis deviation assoc with...
    emphysema, hyperkalemia, lead transposition, AV canal defect in Down's syndrome, artificial cardiac pacing are associated with
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    • Changes in R wave progression associated commonly w/ pregnancy, obesity, dextrocardia, bundle branch block, but also septal myocardial
    • infarction
  5. Hyperthermia
    J wave, ST elevation
  6. Digitalis effects
    U wave, Flattened or inverted T, ST depression
  7. Left bundle branch block
    Lead V1 S wave is very deep and wide. Leads V5-6: widened QRS, inverted T wave
  8. to check for LVH
    • If pt older than 35: Look at deepest S wave in V1 or V2, count mm's. Add it to tallest R of V5 or V6. If sum is more than 35, it's LVH.
    • If pt less than 35, sum should be more than 53.
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    sinus tachycardia. P wave almost diminished, T wave more prominent.
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    Supraventricular tachycardia. P wave prominent, no T wave.
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    Paroxysmal SVT. P wave hidden due to speed. Re-entry circuit involved.
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    Atrial rate >100, at least 3 different P wave morphologies. Most common arrhythmia associated w/ COPD
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    pulseless V tach
  14. Cushing's triad
    hypertension, increased intracranial pressure, bradycardia
  15. Wolff Parkinson White
    short PR, long QRS, delta wave (slurred upstroke in QRS in V2 and V3)
  16. May be left alone untreated if asymptomatic. Fusion beat.
    Wolff Parkinson White
  17. can be seen in normal hearts-made worse by caffeine,alcohol, stress
    premature ventricular contractions
  18. Eliminating this condition does not improve but rather may cause mortality. Can try beta blockers.
    premature ventricular contractions
  19. Can be caused by acidosis,ischemia,hypokalemia,chf. Can be asymptomatic and then leads to sudden cardiac death
    sustained v tach
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    Ventricular escape. Accelerated idioventricular rhythm. QRS > .10s, no P waves, rate below 40/min.
  21. Left anterior fascicular block
    Deep S waves in leads III and V6. Q wave seen in leads I and aVL
  22. thickened arterioles with less red coloring from blood
    silver wiring effect in long standing htn
  23. LV Dilatation, chronic pressure overload, Mid-Late Systolic murmur. L sternal border >>> carotid. Decrease A2. Presence S4. Decrease amplitude carotid upstroke (parvus tardus? Stroke goes up slow, goes down slow)
    Rheumatic calficiation of mitral valve
  24. chronic aortic insufficiency caused by
    chronic volume overload-eccentric hypertrophy
  25. Widened Pulse Pressure, Diastolic Murmur At L sternal border, LV Heave, Soft S1, Fixed S2 (incomplete closure of Aortic Valve). Head
    bobbing with heartbeat, Pistol shot femoral artery. Nail bed pulsation from capillaries, Rapid rise and fall of pulse amplitude
    aortic insufficiency
  26. ectopic atrial rhythm

    Inverted P waves in II, III, and vF
    Inverted P waves in II, III, and vF
  27. mitral valve prolapse heart sound
    mid systolic click
  28. Increases hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mitral valve prolapse. Decreases aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurg
    rapid standing
  29. Increases MR and AI,VSD. Decreases HCM and MVP
    isometric handgrip
  30. Loud S1, Opening Snap. EKG-left atrium enlarged, notched P wave(p mitrale—p wave looks like an “n”), Afib, RVH
    rheumatic mitral stenosis
  31. leads to volume overload state. Increased LA volume>>>increased LV Preload>>>Increased SV>>>LV dilatation. Rapid elevation of pulm pressures (acute). Displaced PMI, Blowing systolic murmur radiating to axilla, S3, RV heave,V wave
    mitral regurg
  32. Usually caused by Rheumatic fever & always associated w/ Carcinoid. Large A wave in JV pulse, Loud S1, Low pitched diastolic rumble, increasing with inspiration
    tricuspid stenosis
  33. murmur for pulmonic insufficiency, secondary to pulmonary htn. Diastolic, descend
    graham steel murmur
  34. Decreases most heart sounds and murmurs except increase HCM (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) and MVP (mitral valve prolapse)
  35. Action of digoxin/digitalis (cardiac glycosides)
    blocks NaK ATPase. intracellular conc of Na and Ca increase --> incr contractility
  36. reversible ST Segment Depression, T wave inversion
    unstable angina
  37. S1 accentuated in
    • Tachycardia
    • Short PR
    • Increased Cardiac
    • Output, CO
    • Mitral Stenosis
  38. S1 diminished in
    reduced LV contractility, mitral regurg, 1st degree heart block
  39. Loudest at LSB ,gets softer as we move toward Axilla. Has a harsh crescendo/decrescendo quality early in course
    aortic stenosis
  40. mid systolic murmur
    MS, TS,Inc AV flow-austin-flint. Descendo, best heard when sitting
  41. early diastolic murmur
    Aortic Insufficiency, Pulmonic Insufficiency. Descendo, best heard when sitting
Card Set
CS cardio condensed
CS cardio condensed