AP HUGE Chapter One Vocabulary

  1. Agricultural density
    The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
  2. Arithmetic density
    The total number of people divided by the total land area
  3. Base line
    An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1985 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States
  4. Cartography
    The science of making maps
  5. Concentration
    The spread of something over a green area
  6. Connections
    Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
  7. Contagious diffusion
    The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
  8. Cultural ecology
    Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
  9. Cultural landscape
    Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
  10. Culture
    The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradtion
  11. Density
    The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
  12. Diffusion
    The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
  13. Distance decay
    The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
  14. Distribution
    The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
  15. Environmental determinism
    A 19th and early 20th century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
  16. Expansion diffusion
    The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
  17. Formal region (or uniform or homogeneous region)
    An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
  18. Functional region (or nodal region)
    An area organized around a node or focal point
  19. Geographic information system (GIS)
    A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
  20. Global positioning system (GPS)
    A system that determines the precise location of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and recievers
  21. Globalization
    Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
  22. Greenwich mean time (GMT)
    The time in that zone encompassing the prime meridian (0 degree longitude)
  23. Hearth
    The region from which innovative ideas originate
  24. Hierarchical diffusion
    The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
  25. International date line
    An arc that for the most part follows 180 degree longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead 1 day
  26. Land Ordinance of 1785
    A law that divided much of the United States into townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
  27. Latitude
    The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring the distance north and south of the equator
  28. Location
    The position of anything on Earth's surface
  29. Longitude
    The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
  30. Map
    A 2-D representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it
  31. Mental map
    A representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
  32. Meridian
    An arc drawn on a map between the north and south poles
  33. Parallel
    A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
  34. Pattern
    The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
  35. Physiological density
    The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
  36. Place
    A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
  37. Polder
    Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area
  38. Possibilism
    The theory that the physcial environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of actions from many alternatives
  39. Prime meridian
    The meridian, designated as 0 degree longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
  40. Principal meridian
    A north-south line designated in the Land of Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States
  41. Projection
    The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
  42. Region
    An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
  43. Regional (or cultural landscape) studies
    An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
  44. Relocation diffusion
    The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
  45. Remote sensing
    The aquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods
  46. Resource
    A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
  47. Scale
    Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole; specifically, the realationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface
  48. Section
    A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections
  49. Site
    The physical character of a place
  50. Situation
    The location of a place relative to another place
  51. Space
    The physical gap or interval between 2 objects
  52. Space-time compression
    The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
  53. Stimulus diffusion
    The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
  54. Toponym
    The name given to a portion of Earth's surface
  55. Township
    A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships
  56. Transnational corporation
    A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
  57. Uneven development
    The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
  58. Vernacular region (or perceptual region)
    An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Card Set
AP HUGE Chapter One Vocabulary
AP HUGE Chapter One Vocabulary