Chapter 23 Neurological System

  1. CNS
    Central Nervous System
    includes brain and spinal cord
  2. PNS
    Peripheral Nervous System
    • includes the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves, and all of their branches
  3. frontal lobe
    personality, behavior, emotions, and intellectual functions
  4. parietal lobe
    primary center for sensation
  5. occipital lobe
    primary visual receptor center
  6. temporal lobe
    primary auditory reception center with functions of hearing, taste, and smell
  7. Wernicke's area
    • Temporal Lobe
    • associated with language comprehension
    • When damaged the person hears sound, but it has no meaning.
  8. Broca's area
    • frontal lobe
    • mediates motor speech
    • When injured the person cannot talk. The person can understand language, but can only produce a garbled sound.
  9. Crossed representation
    the left cerebral cortex receives sensory information from and controls motor function to the right side of the body, and the right to the left side of the body
  10. Sensory Pathways of the CNS
    • 1. Spinothalmic Tract
    • transmit sensations of pain, temperature, and crude or light touch.
    • 2. Posterior Columns
    • conduct the sensations of position, vibration, and finely localized touch.
  11. Motor Pathways of the CNS
    • 1. Corticospinal or Pyramidal Tract
    • a newer, "higher" motor system that permits humans to have very skilled and purposeful movements
    • 2. Extrapyramidal Tracts
    • older, "lower", motor system. Maintain muscle tome and control body movements, especially gross automatic movements such as walking.
  12. Upper Motor Neurons (UMN)
    • located completely within CNS
    • Examples: corticospinal, corticobulbar, and extrapyramidal tracts
    • UMN diseases: strokes, cerebral palsy, and MS
  13. Lower Motor Neurons
    • located mostly in the PNS
    • Examples: cranial nerves and spinal nerves
    • LMN diseases: spinal cord lesions, poliomyelitis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  14. 4 types of reflexes
    • 1. Deep tendon (patellar)
    • 2. Superficial (corneal, abdominal)
    • 3. Visceral (pupillary)
    • 4. Pathologic (Babinski)
  15. dermatome
    circumscribed skin area that is supplied mainly from one spinal cord segment through a particular spinal nerve
  16. dermatome landmarks
    • Thumb, middle finger, 5th finger= C6-8
    • Axilla= T1
    • Nipple= T4
    • Umbilicus= T10
    • Groin= L1
    • Knee= L4
  17. Concussion
    comes from a direct blow that causes the brain to shift rapidly back and forth inside the skull
  18. syncope
    a sudden loss of strength, a temporary loss of consciousness caused by lack of cerebral blood flow
  19. vertigo
    rotational spinning caused by neurologic disease in the vestibular apparatus in the ear or the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem
  20. seizures
    occur with epilepsy--a disease characterized by altered or loss of consciousness, involuntary muscle movements, and sensory disturbances
  21. aura
    a subjective sensation that precedes a seizure; it could be auditory, visual, or motor
  22. tremor
    involuntary shaking or trembling
  23. paresis
    a partial or incomplete paralysis
  24. paralysis
    a loss of motor function caused by a lesion in the neurologic or muscular system or loss of sensory innervation
  25. dysmetria
    inability to control the distance, power, and speed of a muscular action
  26. parasthesia
    an abnormal sensation...burning, or tingling
  27. dysarthria
    difficulty forming words
  28. dysphasia
    difficulty with language comprehension or expression
  29. Sequence for complete neurological exam
    • 1. Mental status
    • 2. Cranial nerves
    • 3. Motor system
    • 4. Sensory system
    • 5. Reflexes
  30. anosmia
    decrease or loss of smell occurs bilaterally with tobacco smoking, allergic rhinitis, and cocaine use
  31. neurogenic anosmia
    unilateral loss of smell in the absence of nasal disease
  32. atrophy
    • abnormally small muscle with a wasted appearance
    • occurs with disuse, injury, LMN disease such as polio, diabetic neuropathy
  33. hypertrophy
    • increased size and strength
    • occurs with isometric exercise
  34. dysmetria
    clumsy movement with overshooting the mark and occurs with cerebellar disorders or acute alcohol intoxication
  35. past pointing
    a constant deviation to one side
  36. ataxia
    uncoordinated or unsteady gait
  37. hypoalgesia
    decreased pain sensation
  38. analgesia
    absent pain sensation
  39. hyperalgesia
    increased pain sensation
  40. hypoesthesia
    decreased touch sensation
  41. anesthesia
    absent touch sensation
  42. hyperesthesia
    increased touch sensation
  43. astereognosis
    • inability to identify object correctly.
    • occurs in sensory cortex lesions
  44. clonus
    a set of rapid, rhythmic contractions of the same muscle
  45. hyperreflexia
    • exaggerated reflex.
    • occurs with UMN lesions (stroke)
  46. hyporeflexia
    • absence of reflex.
    • occurs with interruption of sensory afferents or destruction of motor efferents (spinal cord injury)
  47. infantile automatisms
    reflexes that have a predictable timetable of appearance and departure
  48. neurologic recheck
    • 1. Level of consciousness
    • 2. Motor function
    • 3. Pupillary response
    • 4. Vital signs
  49. F.A.S.T.
    Stroke Prevention
    • F= Face drooping
    • A= Arm Weakness
    • S= Speech difficulty
    • T= Time to callĀ  9-1-1
  50. 10 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's Disease
    • 1. Memory Loss
    • 2. Losing Track
    • 3. Forgetting Words
    • 4. Getting Lost
    • 5. Poor Judgement
    • 6. Abstract Failing7. Losing Things
    • 8. Mood Swings
    • 9. Personality Change
    • 10. Growing Passive
Card Set
Chapter 23 Neurological System
Chapter 23 Health Assessment