Intellectual Disorders (IDs) are characterized by
- Limitations in intellectual functioning.
- Limitations in adaptive functioning as expressed through conceptual, social, and practical skills.
- Origination and onset of symptoms during the developmental period, usually before the age of 18 years.
Five interrelated dimensions contribute to an individual’s functioning ability
- Intellectual capability
- Adaptive behavior
- Participation, interactions, and social roles
- Health (physical health, mental health, etiology)
- Context (environment, culture)
Intellectual capability includes _______ and is represented by ________
- reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, learning quickly, and learning from experience
- IQ scores
IQ is determined by what formula
Mental Age (MA) divided by the Chronological Age (CA) X 100
The mean IQ score is ____ with a standard deviation of ___. That means that a normal IQ ranges from ______.
Sub-average intelligence is considered to be an IQ of
Superior intelligence is considered an IQ of
Adaptive behavior is a collection of ______. The three skills are _______
skills in three domains learned and applied in order to function in everyday life
- Conceptual skills (language, reading, self-direction).
- Social skills (responsibility, self-esteem, law abiding).
- Practical skills (daily living activities, occupational skills).
The classification of intellectual disabilities are designated as ____, ______, _____ and ______.
mild, moderate, severe, and profound
A category of Unspecified Mental Disability is used when
standard tests cannot be performed because of lack of cooperation, severe impairment, or infancy
Mild Intellectual Disability is an IQ score of ____ and characteristics of a child are ______
50 to 69 (an adult has the mental age of a 9 to 12 year old)
- In special education classes.
- Child can advance to a level between third to sixth grade.Practical skills can be learned
What are some adaptive behaviors of an adult with Mild Intellectual Disability
- Individual cares for own personal hygiene and other necessities, with support.
- Communication is good; attention span and memory are less than average.
- Activities that do not require complicated planning or rapid implementation can be carried out satisfactorily.
- Most individuals can engage in semi-skilled or simple skilled work with guidance, and so maintain themselves
Moderate Intellectual Disability is an IQ score of ______ and adaptive behavior of a child is
35 to 49 (an adult has a mental age of a 6 to 9 year old).
- A marked developmental lag occurs in the early years; child can be trained in personal care and hygiene with support.
- Learns simple habits and skills; may not learn to read and write.
- Speaks in short sentences; understands best when single-thought, short sentences are used.
- Participates well in group activities
What are some adaptive behaviors of an adult with Moderate Intellectual Disability
- Attends to personal care, with support.
- Has relatively short attention span and memory.
- May have problems of coordination, but performs simple tasks and is conscientious about taking responsibility for errands and helpful duties.
- Not completely capable of self-maintenance; many do unskilled work with supervision and support
Severe Intellectual Disability is an IQ score of _____ and the adaptive behavior of a child is
20 to 34 (Adult has the mental age of a 3 to 6 year old).
- Benefits from habit training.
- May make attempts at personal care and dressing with support.
- Usually walks, uses some speech, and responds to directions
Adaptive behaviors of an adult with Severe Intellectual Disability are
- Conforms to daily routine.
- May help with household and other small tasks in spite of limited attention span.
- Likely to need continuous support
Profound Intellectual Disability is an IQ score of _____ and the adaptive behavior of a child is
under 20 (equivalent mental age of an average 3 year old).
- Delays occur in all phases of development.
- Close supervision and care are necessary
Adaptive behaviors of an adult with Profound Intellectual Disability are
- Many adults remain inert and placid throughout early years; never learn to sit up.
- Results in severe limitation in self-care, continence, communication, and mobility
What percentage of the population accounts for Mild, Moderate, Severe and Profound ID
What are the four domains and three time categories of risk factors for ID
- biomedical, social, behavioral, and educational
- occurring before birth (Prenatal), during birth (Perinatal), and after birth (Postnatal).
The etiology of Down Syndrome is a
chromosomal abnormality (the presence of three #21 chromosomes, rather than two).
What are some oral findings of people with Down Syndrome
- Most often a person with Down syndrome holds their mouth open with the tongue protruded.
- Lips are often thickened, cracked, and dry, a result of excessive bathing in saliva while the mouth is open.
- Mouth breathing is common
- The tongue is generally deeply fissured.
- Palate may be narrow and vaulted.
- An underdeveloped maxilla with a short, narrow palate tend to force the tongue into protrusion and make it appear larger than it actually may be
What type of occlusion is common in patients with Down Syndrome
Class III occlusion and posterior crossbite
The altered immune system is often related to a decreased _______ which results in a ________.
- Leukocyte function
- decreased ability to fight infection
_________ is the most common & serious medical condition. The high mortality rate is also related to _________.
- Congenital Heart Disease
- respiratory infections & leukemia
Many adults over the age of 40 develop an
Alzheimer’s-like dementia with pathologic brain changes similar to those of Alzheimer’s disease
In older persons with Down syndrome, as many as 50% have _______, with ________ being the most common.
- thyroid disorders
Hearing impairments, either unilateral or bilateral, are present in _____% of persons with Down Syndrome.
40% to 75
Fragile X syndrome, also known as _______, is a genetic disorder that is the ________.
- Martin-Bell syndrome
- most common form of inherited intellectual disability
Describe Level 1 of Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Some difficulty initiating social interactions; atypical response to social overtures from others.
- Inflexible behavior; difficulty switching between activities.
- Problems with organization and planning
Describe Level 2 of Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Requires Substantial Support
- Limited initiation of social interactions; reduced response to overtures from others.
- Deficits in nonverbal communication/behaviors.
- Inflexible, difficulty in switching between activities.
- Difficulty changing focus or action
Describe Level 3 of Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Requires Very Substantial Support
- Severe verbal and nonverbal communication deficits.
- Initiates social interactions only to meet immediate needs.
- Limited intelligible speech.
- Inflexible behavior, extreme difficulty coping with change or changing focus.
- Repetitive behaviors markedly interferes with functioning.
The CDC estimates ______ children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder. It is almost five times greater in _____ than ______
- 1 in 68
- males than in females
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) uses the terms PDD (Pervasive Development Disorder) or ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) to describe what five variations of autistic behavior
- Autistic Disorder
- Asperger’s Disorder
- Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)
- Rett’s Disorder
- Pervasive Development Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
Autistic Disorder is characterized by _______ and symptoms are usually measurable by
Impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication and social (aka: classic autism) interaction, and restrictive or repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities
18 months of age; formal diagnosis is usually made between ages 2 and 3, when delays in language development are apparent
Asperger Disorder is three to four times more likely in _____. Characterized by
- impairments in social interactions and restricted interests and activities, without clinically significant delays in language, cognitive ability, or developmental age-appropriate skills
Rett Disorder is an ______, which occurs only in ____, causing the development of _______ after a period of seemingly normal development. The Purposeful use of hands is years.
- autism-like genetic disorder
- autism-like symptoms
- lost and replaced by repetitive hand movements beginning between ages 1-4
Pervasive Developmental Disorder, not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)is a
Severe and pervasive impairment in specified behaviors, without meeting all of the criteria for a specific diagnosis (aka: atypical autism).
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder is a
Rare autism-like disorder characterized by normal development for at least the first 2 years, followed by a significant loss of previously acquired skills
Most commonly prescribed medications for ASD
- Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has recently been shown to be effective
- Opiate blockers
- Stimulants (such as methylphenidate/Ritalin)