Test 3 Mr Duran

  1. During acute alveolar hyperventilation, the blood
    I. PCO2 increases
    II. H2CO3 decreases
    III. HCO3 increases
    IV. pH decreases
    II only
  2. In the healthy individual in the upright position, the

    I. V/Q (Ventilation to Prefusion) ratio is the highest in the lower lung regions
    II. PaO2 is lowest in the lower lung regions
    III. V/Q ratio is the lowest in the upper lung regions
    IV. PaCO2 is highest in the lower lung regions
    • I and IV only
    • II and IV
    • only IV
    • only I only
  3. During which part of the cardiac cycle does most coronary perfusion occur?
    • Systole
    • It is unaffected by the phase of the cardiac cycle.
    • Diastole
    • Only the first third of the systolic phase
  4. The mitral (bicuspid) valve does which of the following?
    • separates the right atrium and the left atrium
    • prevents atrial backflow during ventricular contraction
    • separates the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
    • separates the right atrium and the right ventricle
  5. What is the primary effect of parasympathetic stimulation over the atria?
    • It decreases the force of contraction.
    • It increases the force of contraction.
    • It slows the heart rate.
    • It speeds the heart rate.
  6. The semilunar (pulmonary and aortic) valves do which of the following?
    • consist of two half-moon or crescent-shaped cusps
    • separate the ventricles from their arterial outflow tracts
    • prevent arterial backflow during ventricular relaxation
    • cause almost the entire afterload for the ventricles
  7. Which of the following are the basic mechanisms that explain venous return?

    I. Muscular “milking” of leg veins containing one-way valves
    II. Sympathetic venous constriction
    III. Cardiac pumping action, creating a “cardiac suction”
    IV. Subatmospheric intrathoracic pressures during breathing
    • I, II, III, IV
    • I, II, III
    • I, II, IV
    • III, IV
  8. During exercise, cardiac output increases dramatically, but mean arterial blood pressure rises very little. Why is this so?
    • No answer text provided.
    • Venules constrict, increasing vascular resistance.
    • Muscle vessels dilate, increasing vascular capacity.
    • Arterioles constrict, increasing vascular resistance.
    • Arterioles dilate, decreasing vascular capacity.
  9. Which of the following terms describes the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
    • Mid-systolic pressure
    • Pulse pressure
    • Mean arterial pressure
    • Mid-diastolic pressure
  10. The underlying goal of the body's cardiovascular control mechanisms is to ensure that all tissues receive which of the following?
    • perfusion according to their metabolic needs
    • equivalent amounts of blood flow
    • blood flow according to their size
    • blood flow according to their mass
  11. Which of the following physical signs are consistent with right ventricular failure?
    I. Hepatomegaly
    II. Jugular venous distension
    III. Ascites
    IV. Pedal edema
    • I, II, III
    • I, I,
    • I, III
    • I, II, III, IV
  12. Which of the following statements are consistent with the response of baroreceptors to high blood pressure?
    I. The cardioregulatory center slows the heart rate.
    II. The carotid and aortic baroreceptors transmit impulses through the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.
    III. Impulses are sent to the brain’s vasomotor and cardioregulatory centers.
    IV. The vasomotor center causes vasodilation.
    • I, II, III
    • I, III
    • I, IV
    • I, II, III, IV
  13. What is the loose membranous sac that encloses the heart?
    • myocardium
    • endocardium
    • mesothelium
    • pericardium
  14. Most of the muscle mass of the heart is located in which chamber?
    • left ventricle (LV)
    • right atrium (RA)
    • right ventricle (RV)
    • left atrium (LA)
  15. The parasympathetic system
    • controls involutary actions in smooth muscle, glands and cardiac muscle
    • serves to halt or decrease activitiesin the vixcera
    • initiates or increases the activity level of an organ
    • is part of the atomic system
  16. What substance deactivates acetylcholine?
    • cholinesterase
    • COMT
    • epinephrine
    • ATP
  17. When the impulse is being transmitted out from the CNS to the portion of the body that is to be influenced, it is called
    • efferent
    • afferent
    • axon
    • dendrite
  18. Which of the following cause blood clotting at a traumatized site?
    • thrombocytes
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • monocytes
  19. Which of the following cause(s) pulmonary vasoconstriction?
    I. Hypercapnia
    II. Hypoxia
    III. Acidemia
    IV. Increased H+ concentration
    • I only
    • III only
    • II, III, and IV only
    • I, II, III and IV
  20. Which part of the neuron carries the impulse towards the cell body?
    • axon
    • dendrite
    • synaptic knob
    • myelin
  21. A complete absence of spontaneous ventilation is called
    • Biot's breathing
    • apnea
    • eupnea
    • dyspnea
  22. Anatomic dead space is best described as
    • intrapulmonary shunting
    • physiologic dead space minus alveolar dead space
    • alveoli receiving ventilation but no perfusion
    • alveolar dead space minus physiologic dead space
  23. An individual anatomic dead space ventilation increases in response to a/an
    I. Increased tidal volume
    II. Decreased ventilatory rate
    III. Increased ventilatory rate
    IV. Decreased tidal volume
    • III and IV
    • III only
    • II only
    • I only
  24. Approximately the last 40 percent of a forced vital capacity is effort independent.
    • True
    • False
  25. A rapid rate of breathing is called
    • hyperpnea
    • alveolar hyperventilation
    • apnea
    • tachypnea
  26. At sea level, the alveolar water vapor pressure is normally about
    • 0.0 mmHg
    • 0.2 mmHg
    • 47 mmHg
  27. Cartilage is found in which of the following structures of the tracheobronchial tree?
    I. Bronchioles
    II. Respiratory bronchioles
    III. Segmental bronchi
    IV. Terminal brinchioles
    • I, II, and IV only
    • I and IV only
    • IV only
    • III only
  28. During the effort-dependent portion of an FVC, the more muscular effort generated, the greater the flow rate will be.
    • True
    • False
  29. From which of the following structures do the lungs first arise during embryonic life?
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • trachea
    • ductus arteriosus
  30. In what week does surfactant start to appear in the fetal lung?
    • 13th week
    • 26th week
    • 36th week
  31. Oxygenated blood enters the inferior vena cava of the fetus by flowing through the:
    • foramen ovale
    • Ductus venous
    • Ductus arteriosus
    • Pulmonary veins
  32. The horizontal fissure separates the
    • middle and lower lobes of the right lung oblique fissure of the left lung
    • upper and lower lobes of the left lung
    • middle and upper lobes of the right lung
  33. The inferior portion of the larynx is composed of the
    • thyroid cartilage
    • cricoid cartilage
    • hyoid bone
    • arytenoid cartilage
  34. The lung segment called the superior lingula is found in the
    • left lung, lower lobe
    • right lung, upper lobe
    • left lung, upper division of the upper lobe
    • left lung, lower division of the upper lobe
  35. Which nerve innervates the diaphragm?
    • vagus
    • thoracic
    • trigeminal
    • phrenic
  36. Which of the following is/are accesory muscles of inspiration?
    I. Trapezius muscles
    II. Internal abdominis obliquus muscles
    III. Scalene muscles
    IV. Transversus abdominis muscles
    • II and IV only
    • II, III, and IV
    • only I and III
    • only I only
  37. Which of the following has the most powerful effect on the respiratory components of the medulla (chemoreceptors)?
    Decreased CO2
  38. Which of the following statements are true of the sinoatrial node?
    I. It is embedded in the right atrial muscle.
    II. It is near the superior vena cava.
    III. It initiates the electrical impulses that produce sequential atrial and ventricular contraction.
    IV. It is near the right ventricle.
    • II and III
    • I,II, and III
    • I,II,III and IV
    • II, III and IV
  39. Which of the following is the main type of adrenergic receptor in the heart?
    • beta 1
    • Alpha
    • Vaso
    • beta 2
  40. Which of the following are consistent with the definition of hypertension?
    I. Diastolic pressure of approximately 90 mm Hg
    II. Diastolic pressure of 80 mm Hg and systolic pressure of 140 mm Hg
    III. Mean arterial pressure greater than 110 mm Hg at rest
    IV. Systolic pressure of approximately 135 to 140 mm Hg
    • I,II,III and IV
    • I, III and IV
    • I and II
    • I,II and IV
  41. Which of the following are the major adaptations to impairments in the cardiovascular system?
    I. Left ventricular hypertrophy
    II. Increased heart rate
    III. Increased atrial contribution to diastolic filling
    IV. Decreased vascular resistance
    • I, II, III and IV
    • I and III
    • II and III
    • II and IV
  42. Cholinergic refers to
    • acetylcholine
    • norepinephrine
    • any synapse
    • catechol-o-methyl transferase
  43. Which of the following peripheral chemoreceptors has the greatest influence over the respiratory centers?
    • Carotid bodies
    • Brachial bodies
    • Femoral bodies
    • Aortic bodies
  44. What is the PAO2 of a person breathing room air at sea level, with a PaCO2 equal to 40 mm Hg?
    • Approximately 100 mm Hg
    • Approximately 110 mm Hg
    • Approximately 80 mm Hg
    • Approximately 90 mm Hg
  45. During fetal life, blood enters the left atrium by passing through the:
    • Common iliac arteries
    • External and internal iliacs
    • Pulmonary veins
    • Foramen ovale
  46. Which of the following structures comprise a functional aspect of the mucociliary blanket in the tracheobronchial?
    I. Goblet cells
    II. Submucosal glands
    III. The vagus nerve
    IV. Macrophages
    • III, IV only
    • I, II, III only
    • II, III only
    • I, III only
  47. When lung compliance decreases, the patient commonly manifests
    I. an increased ventilatory rate
    II. a decreased tidal volume
    III. an increased tidal volume
    IV. a decreased ventilatory rate
    • I and II only
    • III only
    • I and III only
    • II only
  48. The average lung compliance of the newborn is about:
    • 0.005 L/cm H2O
    • 0.5 L/cm H2O
    • 0.25 L/cm H2O
    • 0.05 L.cm H2O
  49. Ninety-five percent of the alveolar surface is composed of which of the following?
    I. Type I cells
    II. Granular pneumocytes
    III. Type II cells
    IV. Squamous pneumocytes
    • I and IV only
    • II only
    • III and IV only
    • I only
  50. The normal heart rate of the newborn is :
    • 80-100 beats/min
    • 100-120 beats/min
    • 130-150 beats/min
    • 60-80 beats/min
  51. About how many primitive alveoli are present at birth?
    • 4 million
    • 24 million
    • 14 milliion
    • 44 million
  52. It is estimated that , at birth, the lungs are partially inflated with liquid approximately equal to the newborn's:
    • VC
    • FRC
    • RV
  53. Which of the following gas laws states that in a mixture of gases the total pressure is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of each gas?
    • Charles' Law
    • Gay-Lussac's Law
    • Boyle's Law
    • Dalton's Law
  54. The normal I : E ratio is
    • 2:1
    • 1:3
    • 0.5: 1
    • 1 : 2
  55. When arranged for flow (V), Poiseuille's law states that V is
    I. inversely proportional to r4
    II. directly proportional to P
    III. inversely proportional to length and viscosity
    IV. a decreased ventilatory rate
    • III and IV only
    • II only
    • I only
    • II and III only
  56. Which of the following carries oxygenated blood to the fetus?
    • umbilical arteries
    • Ductus venosus
    • Umbilical vein
    • Ductus arteriosus
  57. The difference between the alveolar pressure and the pleural pressure is called the driving pressure
    • transairway pressure
    • transthoracic pressure
    • transpulmonary pressure
  58. Which of the following prevents the aspiration of foods and liquids?
    • cricoid cartilage
    • thyroid cartilages
    • arytenoid cartilages
    • epiglottis
  59. The average compliance of the lungs and chest wall combined is
    • 0.3 L/cm H2O
    • 0.4 L/cm H2O
    • 0.1 L/cm H2O
    • 0.2 L/cm H2O
  60. The average airway resistance of the newborn is about:
    • 40cm H2O/L/sec
    • 20cm H2O/L/sec
    • 10cm H2O/L/sec
    • 30cm H2O/L/sec
  61. Approximately the last 40 percent of a forced vital capacity is effort independent
    • True
    • False
  62. The approximate tidal volume of the newborn is about:
    • 15mL
    • 10mL
    • 5 mL
    • 20mL
  63. Which of the following structures becomes the ligamentum teres after birth?
    • Ductus arteriosus
    • Umbilical arteries
    • Umbilical vein
    • Foramen ovale
  64. Which type of cell exhibits the function of producing pulmonary surfactant?
    • goblet cells
    • sebaceous gland cells
    • type I alveolar cells
    • type II alveolar cells
  65. Stroke volume refers to the amount of blood
    • Ejected from the heart over a period of minute
    • Entering the ventricles from the atria
    • Ejected from the ventricles with each beat
    • Entering atria from the ventricles
  66. Pulmonary surfactant is most likely secreted by which of the following?
    • Type I cells (squamous pneumocytes)
    • Ciliary cells of the mucosa
    • Type III cells (alveolar macrophages)
    • Type II pneumocytes (granular pneumocytes)
  67. An adrenergic effect is one that is a result of stimulation of the ______ system
    • nervous
    • parasympathetic
    • sympathetic
    • cholinergic
  68. Adrenergic nerve fibers include
    • all preganglionic fibers
    • most sympathetic postganglionic fibers
    • most parasympathetic fibers
    • somatic fibers
  69. Overall the normal V/Q ratio is about
    • 0.8
    • 0.4
    • 0.2
    • 0.6
  70. If the kidneys excrete excess H+ ions in the urine which of the following will occur?
    • it means that the blood was too alkalinic
    • the purpose is to increase the acidity of the blood
    • the patient will develop metabolic acidosis
    • they may also be reabsorbing bicarbonate ions
  71. All of the following are functions of the respiratory system except:
    • Transport oxygenated blood to the tissues
    • Bring inspired gas in contact with pulmonary capillary blood flow
    • Ensure rapid and efficient exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • Warm and humidify inspired gas
  72. The sympathetic nervous system would cause which of these?
    • dilation of bronchioles
    • increased blood flow to skeletal muscles
    • Dilation of the pupil
    • Increased heart rate
  73. Which of the following is (are) true about the term systole?
    I. Refers to contraction
    II. Pressure in chamber will be lower during systole
    III.Pressure in a chamber will be higher during systole
    IV. refers to filling
    • I and III
    • I and II
    • III and IV
    • II and IV
  74. Which of the following empties urine into the bladder?
    • collecting ducts
    • major calyces
    • distal convulated tubules
    • ureters
  75. Sodium is mostly reabsorbed in the
    • distal convoluted tubule
    • collecting tubule
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • loop of henle
  76. Which of the following is an index commonly used to determine relative lung maturity?
    • SP-A
    • L/S ratio
    • FRC:TLC ratio
    • RQ ratio
  77. What can be caused by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from the mast cells in the submucosa of the airways?
    I. Vasodilation
    II. Vasoconstriction
    III. Bronchoconstriction
    • II only
    • II and III
    • I and III only
  78. The primary functions of the nose is to do the following to inspired air:
    I. Filter Air
    II. Warm inspired Air
    IV.Sterlize Air
    • I,II,III,and IV
    • I and III, only
    • I,II, and III only
    • I and II
  79. The chemical substance manufactured within the cell is called
    • RNA
    • neurotransmitter
    • gray matter
    • myelin sheath
  80. Osmosis it passage of ________ through a membrane that separates solutions of different concentrations from region of ________ concentration to regions of _______ concentration to equalize.
    • H2O, high, low
    • ions, low, high
    • solute, high, low
    • H2O, low, high
  81. Inhalation of cyanide causes
    • hypoxic hypoxia
    • histoxic hypoxia
    • anemic hypoxia
    • stagnant hypoxia
  82. The kidneys are located against
    • the large intestine
    • posterior wall of abdominal cavity
    • diaphragm
    • bladder
  83. Stoppage of breathing would occur with a severance of
    • T-5 and T-6
    • C-3 and C-5
    • T-2 and T-3
    • C-6
  84. The urine produced by the healthy kidney has a specific gravity of about
    • 1.060 to 1.080
    • 1.018 to 1.040
    • 1.006 to 1.020
    • 1.000 to 1.001
  85. Where are the central centers responsible for regulating the cardiovascular system located?
    • Brainstem (pons and medulla)
    • Carotid arteries
    • Cerebral hemispheres
    • Aortic bodies
  86. What is the overall effect of ADH?
    • It increases reabsorption of water.
    • It decreases reabsorption of sodium.
    • It increases reabsorption of sodium.
    • It decreases circulating blood volume and pressure.
  87. Most fibers of the sympathetic system release _________ as a transmitter.
    • catechol-o-methyl transferase
    • cholinesterase
    • MAO
    • norepinephrine
  88. Water usually follows a reabsorption of
    • glucose
    • K+
    • Cl-
    • Na+
  89. The lung serves as all of the following except which one?
    • Storage, synthesis, or activation of bioactive substances
    • Absorption of nutrients from the pulmonary circulation
    • Filter for the system circulation
    • Blood reservoir for the left side of the heart
  90. What percentage of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed into the blood?
    • 99%
    • 50%
    • 25%
    • 1%
  91. Which of the following is not a common symptom of hypoxia?
    • tachypnea
    • restlessness
    • tachycardia
    • temperature
  92. Which of the following CO2 transport mechanisms carries the majority of the CO2 from the tissues to the lungs reversibly bound to
    • Hb
    • H2CO3
    • PaCO2
    • bicarbonate
  93. Which of the following HCO3 to H2CO3 ratios represent a normal pH?
    • 18:1
    • 20:1
    • 22:1
    • 28:1
  94. An acid is a substance that donates __________ and therefore increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution that causes the numerical value of the _______to _______.
    I. increase
    II. decrease
    III. pH
    IV. H+ V. blood
    • IV, III, I
    • V, IV,II
    • IV, V, II
    • IV, III, II
  95. Glomerular filtration is diretly proportional to the patient's
    • fluid intake
    • Osmotic pressure
    • hydrostatic pressure
    • blood cell size
  96. What are the first arteries branching off the aorta?
    • Carotid
    • Subclavian
    • Coronary
    • Brachiocephalic
  97. The fetus is potentially viable if born prematurely after how many weeks gestation?
    • 24 to 26 weeks
    • 6 to 10 weeks
    • 18 to 20 weeks
    • 12 to 16 weeks
  98. The normal calculated anatomic shunt is about
    • 13-20%
    • 0.5-1%
    • 10-12%
    • 2-5%
  99. Which of the following are structures that compose the nephron?
    I. Bowman’s capsule
    II. Proximal convoluted tubule
    III. Loop of Henle
    IV. Collecting duct
    • I, II, III, IV
    • I, II, III
    • I, IV
    • II, III
  100. Normal urine production per minute is approximately
    • 125 cc/minute
    • 1 cc/minute
    • 60cc/minute
    • None of the above
  101. Hypoxia in a patient suffering from congestive heart failure is due to:
    • anemic hypoxia
    • hypercapnia
    • hypoxic hypoxia
    • stagnant blood flow
  102. Stimulation of the sympathetic system causes the bronchi to
    • constrict
    • relax
    • contract
    • swell
  103. What is the functioning unit of the nervous system? neuroglia cell glial cell neuron cell microglia
    • neuroglia cell
    • glial cell
    • neuron cell
    • microglia
  104. Blood moves around the system according to the pressure gradient. Blood moves
    • from areas of lower pressure to areas of higher pressure
    • only when pumped by force
    • Cardiac rate to decrease
    • from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure
  105. Renal compensation for acidosis is accomplished by a set of reactions the end by leaving what in the blood?
    • HCO3-
    • H2CO3-
    • CO2
    • ADH
  106. Which of the following is the most accurate representation of systolic and dialostic pressures in the heart? Peak systolic pressure in the right and left ventricles should be about the same:
    • Peak systolic pressure in the right and left ventricles should be about the same: 120mm Hg is average
    • Peak systolic pressure is much higher in the left ventricle.
    • Peak systolic pressure in the right ventricle is higher than in the left.
    • Peak systolic pressures in the right and left ventricles should be about the same: 80 mm Hg is average.
Card Set
Test 3 Mr Duran
Test 3 Mr Duran