Chapter 12 Epidemiology

  1. What are the nine oral health indicators tracked in NOHSS
    caries experience, untreated caries, dental sealants, tooth loss, annual dental visits, teeth cleaning, fluoridation, and oral and pharyngeal cancer
  2. In general, the higher the index score, the ________ will be present
    more disease
  3. To be valid, an index must measure
    what it is intended to measure
  4. Interexaminer reliability
    two (or more) different examiners should be able to obtain the same score for the same person being examined
  5. Intraexaminer reliability
    one examiner should be able to obtain the same score if the same person is examined twice (reliable).
  6. A screening examination rarely includes __________ and often looks at just _________
    • radiographs and the use of an explorer
    • one disease process, such as dental caries in children or periodontal disease in adults
  7. The purpose of the DMF index is to determine
    total dental caries experience, past (fillings F) and present (decay D), by recording either the number of affected teeth or tooth surfaces
  8. The DMFT is based on
    28 teeth.
  9. The DMFS is based on the
    surfaces of 28 teeth; totaling 128 surfaces
  10. Upper case letters are used for the
    permanent dentition
  11. What teeth are not counted in DMF
    • 3rd molars
    • Unerupted teeth
    • Supernumerary teeth
    • Teeth removed for reasons other than dental caries, such as an impaction or during orthodontic treatment
    • Teeth restored for reasons other than dental caries, such as trauma (fracture), cosmetic purposes, or use as a bridge abutment
  12. With the DMF Index the permanent tooth is evaluated because a primary tooth is never
    included in this index
  13. The total surfaces of the DMFS are determined by
    • 16 posterior teeth × 5 surfaces = 80 available surfaces.
    • 12 anterior teeth × 4 surfaces = 48 surfaces
  14. The criteria for the D in the DMF Index is
    • Decay
    • Clinically visible (not radiographic) dental caries is present or both dental caries and a restoration are present
  15. The criteria for the M in the DMF Index is
    • Missing
    • A tooth has been extracted due to dental caries or it is nonrestorable due to caries and indicated for extraction
  16. The criteria for the F in the DMF Index is
    • Filled
    • Any permanent or temporary restoration is present without evidence of dental caries
  17. To calculate the Group (community) DMFT or DMFS
    • 1.Total the DMFT or DMFS for each individual.
    • 2.Divide that total by the number of individuals in the group
  18. In 2000, the ________ developed the Significant Caries Index (SiC)  to be used when studying _______.
    • World Health Organization
    • DMFT scores on a global basis
  19. How is the Significant Caries Index calculated
    The third of the population with the highest caries scores is selected and the mean DMFT for this subgroup is calculated
  20. The dmf index is generally used for
    children 5 years of age and under (before the age of exfoliation
  21. The df index is generally used for
    children over 5
  22. The deft / defs and dft / dfs will always
    have the same score
  23. For the dmfs index ________surfaces are evaluated _______ , ______ surfaces for posterior teeth and ____ surfaces for anterior teeth
    • 88
    • 5 8 teeth × 5 surfaces = 40 surfaces
    • 4 12 teeth × 4 surfaces = 48 surface
  24. The BSS (Basic screening survey) gathers information on a ________ rather than on a _________ basis
    • per-person basis
    • per-tooth or per-tooth-surface
  25. How many variety of forms are there for the BSS index
    There is one for adults, one for school age children, and one for preschool children
  26. For state level oral health data to be included in The National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) it must be based on a survey that follows the _________ model
    Basic Screening Survey
  27. If any of the __________ teeth have caries experience, that child is classified as having early childhood caries
    six maxillary anterior
  28. The selection of the teeth for the Root Caries Index is
    Four surfaces (mesial, distal, facial, lingual) with visible gingival recession are counted for each tooth
  29. RCI rating criteria
    NO R
    • No visible recession
    • Recession but no caries or restoration is present
    • Recession with caries/decay (D = decay)
    • Recession with a  restoration/filling (F = filled)
    • Tooth is missing
  30. To calculate the RCI One must
    Restoration + Decay/ Total of teeth with visible recession  x 4 x 100
  31. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) is the same as the __________ except the other adds a category for ________
    • Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN)
    • treatment needs
  32. The CPI/CPITN evaluated what 3 indicators of periodontal status
    • 1.Gingival bleeding.
    • 2.Calculus.
    • 3.Periodontal pockets
  33. For the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) A sextant is examined only if there are ________ teeth present and not indicated for
    • two or more
    • extraction
  34. For the CPI For adults aged 20 years and over, the index teeth to be examined are ________ and If one of the molars is missing, ________ is selected
    • # 2, #3, #8, #14, #15, #18, #19, #25, #30, #31
    • no replacement
  35. CPI Index (Periodontal)
    • 0. Healthy
    • 1. Bleeding observed after probing
    • 2. Calculus detected during probing, but all the black band on the probe visible
    • 3. Pocket 4 - 5 mm (gingival margin within the black band on the probe).
    • 4. Pocket 6 mm or more (black band on the probe not visible).
  36. Interpretation of Treatment Need Codes for the CPI
    • 0. Preventive care; biofilm control.
    • 1. Preventive care; biofilm control
    • 2. Preventive care and calculus removal; biofilm removal
    • 3. Comprehensive periodontal assessment and treatment plan (TP); biofilm control
    • 4. Comprehensive periodontal assessment and treatment plan (TP) for non-surgical periodontal therapy; biofilm control
  37. For the CPI for subjects under the age of 20 years, ______ teeth are examined
    • only six teeth - #3, 8, 14, 19, 25, and 30 - are examined 
    • (The second molars are not used)
  38. For the CPI for children under the age of 15 _______ are not recorded
    • pockets
    • Only bleeding and calculus are considered
  39. The Ramfjord Index Teeth is a condensed version of the _______ and evaluates ______ teeth
    • #3, #9, #12, #19, #25, and #28
  40. The Gingival Index is used to assess the  ________ based on _______, _______, and ________.
    • severity of gingivitis
    • color, consistency, and bleeding on probing
  41. The four areas evaluated on each tooth for the GI are _______. The __________ to determine the degree of firmness. The probe is then inserted a few millimeters and moved in a _______ rather than ______ to evaluate bleeding
    • D, F, M, Li
    • probe is pressed on the gingiva
    • circumferential direction (rather than walking the probe)
  42. GI Code Criteria
    • 0 Normal gingiva
    • 1 Mild inflammation-slight change in color, slight edema. No bleeding on probing
    • 2 Moderate inflammation-redness, edema, and glazing. Bleeding on probing
    • 3 Severe inflammation-marked redness and edema. Ulceration. Tendency to spontaneous bleeding
  43. What are the Indices used to measure plaque
    • 1.Plaque Index (Pl I).
    • 2.Patient Hygiene Performance (PHP).*
  44. The purpose of the Pl I is to assess the _______ of biofilm at the _______ area only.
    • thickness
    • gingival (cervical)
  45. Plaque Index (PI) Criteria
    • 0 No biofilm
    • 1 A thin or slight film of biofilm adhering to the free gingival margin and adjacent area of the tooth
    • 2 Moderate accumulation of soft deposits within the gingival pocket that can be seen with the naked eye or on the tooth and gingival margin
    • 3 Abundance of soft matter within the gingival pocket and/or on the tooth and gingival margin
  46. The Patient Hygiene Performance Index (PHP) index was developed to record _________. It examines _______ teeth and _____ surfaces. The teeth selected are _______
    • plaque biofilm over the whole a tooth surface
    • six specific
    • only one 
    • #3-B, #8-F, #14-B, #19-L, #24-F, and #30-L
  47. For the Patient Hygiene Performance Index (PHP) each tooth surface by subdividing the tooth into ___ sections
    • 5
    • mesial, gingival, middle, and occlusal or incisal thirds and distal
  48. The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) examines the _____ teeth
    same six teeth and surfaces as the PHP
  49. The purpose of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) is to
    evaluate debris and/or calculus
  50. The two components of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) are
    1.Simplified Debris Index (DI-S).

    2.Simplified Calculus Index (CI-S).
  51. The six teeth and surfaces used for the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) are
    #3-B, #8-F, #14-B, #19-L, #24-F, and #30-L
  52. Each of the six teeth surfaces for the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) get a score of
  53. The Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis (TSIF) gives a score for
    each tooth surface in the mouth
  54. The Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis (TSIF) is also known as the
    Horowitz Index
Card Set
Chapter 12 Epidemiology
Chapter 12 Epidemiology