1. Penicillins are what kind of antibiotics?
    Beta-lactam antibiotics
  2. what does penicillin inhibit
    the cross-linking of peptidoglycan chains
  3. What do penicillins have no effect on and why?
    mycoplasma, protozoa, fungi, or viruses 

    because they have different cell walls
  4. What are also beta-lactam antibiotics that operate in a manner related to that of penicillins but tend to be more resistant than penicillins to inactivation by beta-lactamases
  5. Where are beta-lactamases found? (2)
    • Plasmids
    • lateral gene transfer (resistance factors)
  6. tetracyclines binds to what and inhibits what?
    binds to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis
  7. tetracyclines are known as ______
  8. Aminoglycosides are bacterial antibiotics that include (4):
    streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, neomycin
  9. How do aminoglycosides work?
    By inhibiting bacterial protien synthesis
  10. _____ are bacteriostatic antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis (translation). Erythromycin belongs to this class
  11. bacteriocidal antibiotics, whose mechanism is the inhibition of topoisomerase II, a DNA gyrase

    sometimes just called quinolones
  12. beta-lactam antibiotics that are relative resistant to hydrolysis of beta-lactamases and are often used as antibiotics of last resort
  13. A tricyclic glycopeptide which is used against multi-drug resistant organisms and its mechanism is the inhibition of bacterial synthesis of cell wall phospholipids and the inhibition of peptidoglycan polymerization
  14. Mechanism of antibiotic action include (4)
    • Inhibition of RNA synthesis 
    • Inhibition of folate metabolism
    • inhibition mycelia acid synthesis (has to do with TB germ)
    • Alteration of cytoplasmic membrane (inner membrane)
  15. Resistance to antibiotics can be acquired by two major mechanisms:
    • lateral gene transfer
    • mutations via vertical gene transfer
  16. Mechanisms of drug resistance can be classified into 5 main categories:
    • Inactivation of drug by bacterial enzyme
    • Over-production of drug target (bacteria overproduces itself)
    • Altered permeability to drug (membrane and cell wall)
    • Metabolic bypass of target pathway (pathway that is affected)
    • Alteration in target protein (change it so it is no longer able to stand out as a target)
Card Set
Exam 2 Material