Chapter 11 Concepts in Epidemiology

  1. The term health-related states (or health-related events) means
    anything that affects the well-being of a population
  2. Where dentists and dental hygienists collect information on individual patients by conducting an examination, epidemiologists collect information through
    surveying the population
  3. The epidemiologist uses data to identify a
    community health problem
  4. Mapping is a tool to
    identify trends and patterns
  5. Fluoride in drinking water was _______ related to dental caries experience.
  6. What is an Endemic
    The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area or population group
  7. What is an Epidemic
    The occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a given area or among a specific group of people over a particular period of time
  8. What is a Pandemic
    An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries and usually affecting a large number of  people
  9. What is a —Cluster
    Grouping of health-related events that are related in time and in proximity
  10. The concept that more than one factor must be present for disease to develop is referred to as
    multiple causation (or multifactorial).
  11. Most outcomes in epidemiologic studies are caused by a chain or ________ consisting of many component causes
    web of events
  12. Disease takes place when an __________ capable of causing the disease meets a ______ that is vulnerable to the agent in an _________
    • outside agent (pathogen)
    • host
    • environment
  13. The agent, host, and environment comprise what is referred to as the
    epidemiologic triangle (or epidemiologic triad)
  14. The _______ is the entity that is associated with the disease
    • agent
    • Ex. bacteria, fungi, virus
  15. The _______ consists of the conditions that are not part of either the agent or the host, but that ________.
    • environment
    • influence their interaction
  16. In the center of the epidemiologic triangle is
  17. Common frequency measures are
    counts, proportions, ratios, and rates
  18. A count is the
    number of individuals who meet the case definition (e.g. have the disease being evaluated).
  19. The number of cases in each city needs to divided by the total population resulting in the
  20. The proportion of the population that has a disease at a particular time is known as the ________ of the disease
  21. Incidence is a measure of the occurrence of ________ of disease during a span of time
    new cases
  22. A rate is the ________ where _____ is included in the denominator
    • division of two numbers
    • time
  23. Indices allow for the measurement of _________, rather than just disease frequency (occurrence)
    disease severity
  24. In general, a study is either
    experimental or observational
  25. Observational studies can be subdivided into
    descriptive and analytical.
  26. In descriptive epidemiology the researcher identifies the _________ an event occurred. Once the researcher knows the answers to those questions they may want to use analytical epidemiology to determine ________ the event occurred
    • “who”, “where”, and “when”
    • “how” and “why”
  27. The three main observational studies are
    cross-sectional, cohort, and case-control
  28. Cross-sectional Study is also known as a _______. A cross-sectional study is a _______ study because it does not analysis the information
    • prevalence study
    • descriptive
  29. Studies that observe data over time are known as
    longitudinal studies
  30. Two primary types of observational longitudinal studies are ________ and _______
    case-control and cohort
  31. That means cross-sectional studies determine _______ and case-control and cohort studies determine ________
    • prevalence
    • incidence
  32. Case-control Study divides a population into persons _________ and _________
    who have a disease (cases) and persons who do not have the disease (controls)
  33. —In this type of study the researcher is studying the ______ of something in relation to disease either in the past or the future.
  34. Participants should be ________ at the start of a prospective cohort study.
    free of disease
  35. —The difference between the two is in a case-control study the researcher divides individuals by _______whereas in a retrospective cohort study, the investigator divides individuals by their _________.
    • disease status (those that have the disease and those who do not have the disease)
    • exposure status (those that smoke and those that do not smoke
  36. Sensitivity is the probability a test
    will pick up the presence of a disease in a person who has it
  37. Specificity is the probability the test
    accurately detects a person that does not have the disease when they are disease free
  38. True positive
    Sick people correctly diagnosed as sick
  39. False positive
    Healthy people incorrectly identified as sick
  40. True negative
    Healthy people correctly identified as healthy
  41. False negative
    Sick people incorrectly identified as healthy
Card Set
Chapter 11 Concepts in Epidemiology
Chapter 11 Concepts in Epidemiology