Brain Damage/Neuroplasticity

  1. Glial Tumor
  2. From Glial cells
  3. Meningiomas
    Tumors between meninges. (Encapsulated/benign)
  4. Metastases
    Cancer cells coming from other organs
  5. Cerebrovascular Disorders (stroke)-
    Excessive release of glutamate bc of excess Na+ and Ca++
  6. Cerebral Hemorrhage
    Ruptured Aneurysm
  7. Cerebral Ischemia
    Clogged blood vessel
  8. Excitotoxicity
    Hippocampus susceptible (NMDAR rich area)
  9. Contrecoup Injury
    blow that causes brain to strike skull (brain damage opposite to blow)
  10. Contusion-
    • damage to cerebral
    • circulatory system
  11. Concussion-
    Disturbance of consciousness (but no contusion)
  12. CNS Infections/Encephalitis
    • Bacterial/Viral
    • Brain inflamation
  13. Syphilis (bacterial)
    • - produces insanity/dementia = general
    • paresis
  14. Meningitis (bacterial)
    Meningitis- inflammation of meninges
  15. Viral Infections
    • -Meningitis
    • -Rabies- affinity for neural system
    • -Herpes- no affinity for neural system
  16. Neurotoxins
    • -Early antipsychotic drugs caused tardive
    • dyskinesia

    • -Some neurotoxins are endogenous- antibodies
    • attack neural tissue
  17. Down Syndrome
    Extra Chromosome 21
  18. Huntingtons
    • Disease of extrapyramidal system
    • Less common than Parkinson
    • Uncontrolled rapid movement/severe dementia·
    • Clear Genetic cause/ no treatment
  19. Parkinsons
    • Disease of extrapyramidal system
    • .5% population affected
    • -problems initiating voluntary movement. Tremors. No Dementia
    • -Genetic factors/ No cure but dopamine treatment
  20. Alzheimers
    • -affect entorhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus
    • -Amyloid plaques (scar tissue from degenerating neurons) on outside neurons
    • -Neurofibrillary Tangles (protein tangles) oninside neurons in cytoplasm
  21. MS
    • - Attacks myelin in CNS/ leaves hard scar tissue
    • -Visual, muscle, tremor, motor coordination
    • problem
    • -Autoimmune disorder
  22. Epilepsy
    • Primary symptom= seizures, not all seizures = epilepsy
    • Diagnosed by EEG/ can be hard to diagnose
  23. Epileptic Aura
    • -Preceding signal/smell or feeling
    • -Seizure warning-Epileptic Focus- can suggest prob area
  24. Partial Epilepsy
    Does not involve whole brain.

    -Simple-Sensory or motor- spreads as epileptic discharge spreads

    • -Complex-Temporal lobes- Compulsive repetitive simple behavior/ or complex without
    • memory of them
  25. Generalized Epilepsy
    Entire Brain

    -Grand mal- Loss of consciousness/equilibrium. Tonic clonic (tremors)

    -Petit mal- Absense seizures- disruption of consciousness
  26. Anterograde Degeneration-
    synapse after cut dies
  27. Retrograde Degeneration-
    Cell before cut dies
  28. Oligodendrocytes-
    myelinate CNS/ do not promote regeneration
  29. Schwann-
    myelinate PNS/promote regeneration
  30. Blocking Apoptosis
    • -Apoptosis inhibitor protein
    • -Nerve growth factor
    • -Estrogens- limit/delay neuron death
    • -P2X7R antagonist Brilliant blue G (BBG)
Card Set
Brain Damage/Neuroplasticity