CNA Chapter 36 & 37 42 - 44

  1. List five causes of wounds.
    • Surgery
    • Trauma
    • Unrelieved pressure or friction
    • Decreased blood flow through the arteries or veins
    • Nerve damage
  2. A skin tear is
    a break or rip in the outer layers of the skin.
  3. Circulatory ulcers are caused by
    decrees blood flow through the artier or veins.
  4. The heels and inner aspects of the ankles are common sites for
    venous ulcers occurs when valves in veins do not close well.
  5. ______ is a condition in which there is death of tissue.
  6. Arterial ulcers are found:
    • Toes
    • On top of the toes
    • On the outer side of the ankle
  7. A _________ is an open wound on the foot caused by complications from diabetes.
    Diabetic foot ulcer
  8. Why do you need to check daily the feet of persons with diabetes?
    Check for foot damage as it takes several weeks or months for them to heal.
  9. This type of wound is created for therapy. Surgical wounds are examples.
    Intention wound
  10. First intention
    The wound is closed
  11. Second intention
    Contaminated and infected wounds are cleaned and dead tissue removed.
  12. Third intention
    Wound is left open and closed later
  13. You cannot see _____ hemorrhage. Bleeding occurs inside the body into tissues and body cavities.
  14. Describe serous drainage.
    Serous comes from the word serum. Serum is clear think fluid portion of blood. Serum does not contain blood cells or platelets.
  15. Explain why tape must not circle the entire body part.
    If swelling occurs, circulation to the part is impaired.
  16. When removing dressings, how is the tape removed?
    Remove tape by pulling it forward the wound.
  17. List six stages of pressure ulcers.
    • Stage 1 – Intact skin with redness over bony prominence. 
    • Stage 2 – Partial-thickness skin loss.
    • Stage 3 – Full thickness tissue lose. 
    • Stage 4 – Full thickness tissue loss with muscle, tendon, and bone exposure.
    • Unstageable – full thickness tissue loss with ulcer cover by slough and/ or eschar.
    • Suspected deep tissue injury – a purple or maroon area of intact skin or a blood-filled blister.
  18. A shear is
    when layers of the skin rub against each other; when the skin remains in place and underlying tissues moves.
  19. Where do pressure ulcers usually occur?
    Over bumpy prominence
  20. Why are older and disabled persons at great risk for pressure ulcers?
    They are more bedfast
  21. Describe a Stage 1 pressure ulcer.
    The color does not fade with pressure. It way may appear pale, blue, or purple.
  22. Why do pressure ulcers usually occur over bony areas (pressure points)?
    Those are the areas where people apply more pressure to, and the area where the skin is more fragile and doesn’t have much cushion.
  23. An avoidable pressure ulcer is
    from the improper use of the nursing process.
  24. Define the stages of pressure ulcers:
    • Suspected deep tissue injury – Pressure or shear damaged underlying soft tissue.
    • Stage 1- Redness over a body prominence.
    • Stage 2 – The wound may involve a blister or shallow ulcer.
    • Stage 3 – The skin is gone. Subcutaneous fat may be exposed.
    • Stage 4 – Slough and eschar may be present.
    • Unstageable – Slough is yellow, tan gray, green, or brown.
  25. ____ and ___ healing may signal an infection.
    Pain and delayed
  26. List four key pressure ulcer prevention measures for persons at risk.
    • Managing moisture.
    • Good nutrition.
    • Good fluid balance.
    • Relieving pressure ulcers.
  27. Explain why avoidable pressure ulcers are preventable.
    We can provide necessary treatment and services to promote healing, prevent infection, and prevent new ulcers.
  28. To prevent friction in bed
    you can powder the sheets lightly can help decrease friction.
  29. The total or partial loss of the ability to use or understand language; a language disorder resulting from damage to parts of the brain responsible for language
  30. An eye disease in which fluid pressure within the eye increases
  31. A touch reading and writing system that uses raised dots for each letter of the alphabet
  32. Difficulty expressing or sending out thoughts
    Expressive aphasia
  33. Hearing loss in which it is impossible for the person to understand speech through hearing alone
  34. An eye disease in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy
  35. A ringing, roaring, hissing, or buzzing sound in the ears or head
  36. Otitis media is
    an infection of the middle ear
  37. List four obvious signs and symptoms of hearing loss.
    • Hearing on the phone.
    • Hearing with background noise or in noise areas.
    • Flowing conversation when 2 or more people are speaking.
    • Hearing voices as mumble or slurred.
  38. What is the best way to clean a hearing aid?
    Follow the nurse’s direction and manufacturer’s instructions.
  39. The person with ___ cannot use the speech muscles to produce understandable speech.
    apraxia of speech
  40. With ____ aphasia, the person has difficulty understanding language.
  41. Glaucoma results in damage to the ____.
    optic nerve
  42. The most common cause of cataracts is
  43. __________ is a disease that blurs central vision. It damages the macula located in the center of the retina
    Age related muscular degeneration
  44. Everyone with diabetes is at risk for the eye disorder __________
    diabetic retinopathy
  45. Low vision is
    vision loss that cannot be corrected with eyeglasses.
  46. The ______ person sees at 20 feet what a person with normal vision sees at 200 feet.
    legally blind
  47. What is the goal of rehabilitation programs for persons with vision loss?
    Help the person adjust to the vision loss and learn to be independent.
  48. The nurse asks you to remove, clean, and store a patient’s contact lenses. What observations do you need to report and record?
    • Eye redness or irritation.
    • Eye drainage.
    • Complaints of ye pain, blurred vision, or uncomfortable lenses.
  49. List four cancer risk factors described by the National Cancer Institute.
    • Age
    • Tabaco
    • Radiation
    • Infections
  50. One treatment for cancer involves surgery to remove tumors. Surgery is done for the following reasons:
    • Cure
    • Control cancer
    • Relieve pain
  51. Chemotherapy involves drugs that
    kill cancer cells
  52. The _____ system protects the body from microbes, cancer cells, and other harmful substances.
  53. How does the immune system cause diseases?
    Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system attacks its own body’s healthy cells.
  54. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by
    Human immunodeficiency virus
  55. The AIDS virus is transmitted mainly by:
    • Having sex with someone who has HIV.
    • Sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment used to prepare injection drugs.
  56. To protect yourself and others from HIV and AIDS, you must follow
    Standard precautions and blood bone pathogen standard.
  57. Persons infected with HIV can spread the virus even without symptoms. How long can a person infected with HIV remain symptom free?
    For more than 10 years.
  58. Shingles is most common in persons over __ years of age.
  59. List five warning signs of stroke.
    • High blood pressure
    • Smoking
    • Diabetes
    • High cholesterol
    • Heart disease
  60. All stroke-like symptoms signal the need for
  61. List four signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
    • Tremors
    • Rigid, stiff muscles
    • Stooped posture and impaired balance
    • Mask like expression
  62. Symptoms of multiple sclerosis usually start between the ages of
    20 and 40
  63. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) attacks the nerve cells that control
    voluntary muscle
  64. Coma
    The person is unconscious, does not respond is unaware and cannot be aroused.
  65. Vegetative state
    The person is unconscious and unaware of surrounding.
  66. Brain death
    Despite complete loss of brain function the heart continues to beat.
  67. A spinal cord injury usually results from
    Sudden traumatic blow to the spine.
  68. With spinal cord injury, damage to the spinal cord can be complete or incomplete. Describe what occurs when the damage is complete.
    No sensory or muscle function below the level of the injury site.
  69. Joint replacement surgery (arthroplasty) is done to:
    • Relieve pain
    • Restore join function
    • Correct a deformed joint
  70. Describe an open (compound) fracture.
    The broken bone has come through the skin.
  71. Fractures in infants may signal
    child abuse
  72. A patient is recovering from a hip fracture. After surgery, the person needs to keep the operated leg ______ at all times.
  73. _____ is a condition is which there is death of tissue.
  74. A prosthesis is
    an artificial replacement for a missing body part.
Card Set
CNA Chapter 36 & 37 42 - 44
CNA Chapter 36 & 37, 42 - 44