Cytology - Basic Genetics - Histology

  1. What is the definition of Anatomy?
    Study of the structure.
  2. What is the definition of Physiology?
    How the parts of the body work.
  3. What is the definition of Pathology?
    Study of abnormalities from normal function.

    [Patho] - disease
  4. What are the 7 characteristics of life?
    • 1. Metabolism
    • 2. Responsiveness
    • 3. Movement
    • 4. Reproduction (formation of new cells)
    • 5. Growth
    • 6. Differentiation (cells reaching to specialised state)
    • 7. Vital Force/Chi
  5. What are the 4 characteristics of death?
    • 1. Loss of heartbeat.
    • 2. Absence of breathing.
    • 3. Loss of brain function.
    • 4. No Vital Force/Chi.
  6. What is the definition of Homeostasis?
    • The condition of balance in the body’s internal environment.
    • It is dynamic and ever-changing whilst always remaining within narrow limits.
  7. What are the 7 Physiological variables that have to be kept within narrow limits for Homeostatic Balance?
    • 1. Core temperature (36.5-37.5c).
    • 2. Water & Electrolyte* concentrations, *charged elements.
    • 3. pH of body fluids.
    • 4. Blood Glucose levels.
    • 5. Blood & Tissue (Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide) Levels.
    • 6. Blood Pressure.
    • 7. Flow of LifeForce.
  8. Give an example of a fluid inside the cell?
    Cytoplasm is an intracellular fluid.
  9. Give two examples of fluid outside the cell.
    Interstitial and Synovial are both extracellular fluids.
  10. Define Interstitial fluid?
    • [Inter] - between
    • [Stitial] - positioned

    Interstitial fluid is a fluid composition that is in between the cells. It changes as substances move back and forth between it and blood plasma.
  11. Define how a Control System works to keep Homeostatic Balance?
    Homeostatis is constantly being disturbed by external and internal environments. Control Systems maintain Balance/equilibrium.
  12. Name the 4 Control Systems?
    • 1. Disruptor(input)
    • 2. Detectors(receptors)
    • 3. Control Centre
    • 4. Effector(output)
  13. What are Feedback Systems?
    Feedback systems are groups of receptors and effectors communicating with their control centre.
  14. Define what a Negative Feedback System is and give an example?
    A Negative Feedback System is when the Effector(output) reverses the Disruptor(input). The effector response decreases the effect of the original stimulus, maintaining/restoring homeostasis.

    E.g. change of body temperature.
  15. Define what a Positive Feedback System is and give an example?
    The Output(effector) amplifies the Input(disruptor). So the stimulus increases the response as long as the stimulus is continued.

    E.g. child birth/milk production.
  16. Explain how the Body is organised.
    • Chemical Level (Atoms & Molecules)
    • ⬇︎
    • Cells (each specialised to carry specific function)
    • ⬇︎
    • Tissues (groups of cells with similar structures)
    • ⬇︎
    • Organs (made of different number of tissue working together with a specific function)
    • ⬇︎
    • Systems (consist of a number of organs and tissues to contribute to one or more survival needs of the body)
    • ⬇︎
    • Vital Force/Chi (life energy throughout the body)
    • ⬇︎
    • Human Being/Organism
  17. Name the 12 Systems of the Human Body?
    • 1. Skeletal
    • 2. Muscular
    • 3. Respiratory
    • 4. Cardiovascular
    • 5. Digestive
    • 6. Endocrine
    • 7. Integumentary (skin,hair,nails)
    • 8. Urinary
    • 9. Reproductive
    • 10. Nervous System
    • 11. Immune System
    • 12. Vital Force
  18. Name the 4 Body Cavaties?
    • 1. Cranial
    • 2. Thoracic
    • 3. Abdominal
    • 4. Pelvic
  19. Define and describe Cytology.
    • Cytology is the study of plant and animal cells.
    • All known living things are made up of cells and vital Force.
    • All cells come from pre-existing cells by division.
  20. Describe his disease can form?
    • Disruption of body physiology can cause disease.
    • Cells are interconnected making up organs and systems. When this is disrupted, diseases manifest in these organs.
  21. Name 2 factors which can cause disease?
    • 1. Toxins from foods.
    • 2. Environment or drugs.
  22. Name 1 Toxin that can cause serious disruption to cell processes?
    Lead accumulates slowly in the body and affects red blood cells, nervous system and kidneys.
  23. Name the 2 Types of Cell?
    • 1. Prokaryotes
    • 2. Eukaryotes
  24. Describe a Prokaryote Cell?
    • Prokaryote cells are cells mainly for bacteria.
    • They have no nucleus.
    • They have a cell wall.
    • They are unicellular.
    • Contain no organelles.
  25. Describe a Eukaryote Cell?
    • These are human and animal cells, fungi, plant and worms.
    • Many organelles inside cell.
    • Membrane bound nucleus.
    • Cell wall only present in plants.
  26. What are the 4 components of a Eukaryote Cell?
    • 1. Plasma Membane - membrane surrounding cell)
    • 2. Cytosine - basic watery fluid/intracellular fluid.
    • 3. Organelles - small structures within the cell with specialised functions.
    • 4. Cytoplasm - cell content excluding the nucleus.
  27. Define what the Plasma Membrane does?
    The Plasma Membrane is flexible and semi-permeable and separates the cells external and internal environment.
  28. What is the Plasma Membrane structurally made of?
    • Structurally the Plasma Membrane has a phospholipid bilayer.
    • The phosphate heads are hydrophilic (water-loving).
    • The lipid tails are hydrophobic (water-hating).

    This regulates what goes in and out depending what the cell needs.
  29. Name the 4 Functions of TransMembrane Proteins which are embedded in the Plasma Membrane?
    [Trans] - across 

    • 1. For movement of Ions.
    • 2. Carriers - allow/transport larger substances across membrane.
    • 3. Immunological identity - help identify foreign cells.
    • 4. Receptors - recognition sites for hormones.
  30. Name the 9 Organelles within a Eukaryote Cell?
    • 1. Nucleus
    • 2. Mitochondria
    • 3. Ribosomes
    • 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • 5. Golgi Apparatus
    • 6. Vesicles & Vacuoles
    • 7. Lysosomes
    • 8. Centrioles
    • 9. Microtubules
  31. Describe the Nucleus?
    • 1. All somatic cells have a nucleus except red blood cells. 
    • 2. This is the "hub" for each cell. 
    • 3. Some cells have multiple nuclei.
  32. What is the Nucleolus made of and what is its function?
    A Nucleolus is within the nucleus and it is made up or Protein, DNA & RNA.

    The Nucleolus produces RNA.
  33. What is DNA?
    • DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a self replicating material present in all living organisms. 
    • It is the main constituent of chromosomes and the carrier of genetic information.
  34. What is RNA?
    RNA - Ribonucleic Acid is made of of Nucleotides, essential for genetics and Protein Synthesis.
  35. What are Chromosomes?
    Chromosomes are thread-like structures of nucleic acid and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of Genes.
  36. How many Chromosomes in a human somatic cell?
  37. Describe how Chromosomes are formed?
    • Nucleotides (building blocks of DNA).
    • ⬇︎
    • DNA forms a Double Helix
    • ⬇︎
    • These coil round proteins called Histones
    • ⬇︎
    • DNA is organised into dense fibres called Chromatin
    • ⬇︎
    • Just before cellular division, Chromatin condenses even further and is subdivided into 46 individual Chromosomes.
  38. What chromosomes are for female sex cells?
  39. What chromosomes are for male sex cells?
  40. Describe what Genes are and their function?
    Genes are portions of DNA that hold genetic information.

    • Build and maintain cells.
    • Pass genetic traits to offspring.
  41. Organelles: Cytoskeletons: Describe how they work and their function?
    • Cytoskeletons are a network of protein filaments that extend through the cytosol. 
    • These are formed by Microtubules & Microfilaments
    • Microfilaments help to generate movement & provide support. 
    • Microtubules are organised in the Centrosome
    • The centrosome is located near the nucleus and this regulates cell division.
  42. Organelles: Mitochondria: Describe how they work and their function?
    • Mitochondria generate ATP. ATP is the current of energy in body cells. 
    • They also have an inner membrane which has a series of folds called cristae which produce enormous surface areas for reactions.
  43. Organelles: Ribosomes: Describe their function?
    • Ribosomes are the sight of protein synthesis
    • They have a high content of RNA.
  44. What are the 2 types of Ribosomes?
    • 1. Mobile ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm and make protein inside the cell
    • 2. Stationary ribosomes are bound to Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum(RER) and make protein for outside the cell.
  45. What are the 3 reasons why Ribosomes synthesise protein?
    • 1. For specific organelles.
    • 2. Insertion into plasma membrane.
    • 3. Export from cell.
  46. Organelles: Endoplasmic Reticulum: Describe what they are?
    A network of membranes in the form of flattened sacs. 

    • Endoplasmic = within plasma
    • Reticulum = network (in Latin) 
  47. Describe a Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) and its functions?
    • Continuous with the nuclear membrane. 
    • Studded with ribosomes. 
    • To synthesise and transport proteins.
  48. Describe a Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) and its functions?
    • 1. Contains unique enzymes. 
    • 2. Contains no ribosomes. 
    • 3. Synthesises lipids and steroid hormones.
  49. Organelles: Describe the Golgi Apparatus?
    Golgi Apparatus a.k.a "The Cell Post Office" are flattened membranous sacs called cisternae.
  50. Organelles: Golgi Apparatus: Describe it's function?
    • 1. They modify, package and transport proteins received from the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER).
    • 2. Transport vesicles from RER move towards the Golgi and release proteins into it's lumen. 3. Enzymes modify the proteins and then bud off in transport vesicles

    • Vesicles = small sac or cyst containing fluid or gas. 
    • Lumen = inside space of tubular structure. 
  51. Organelles: Lysosomes: Describe how they work and their function?
    • Lysosomes are special types of membrane enclosed vesicles that perform a key role in cell digestions. 
    • Lisosomes are the "recycling plant" of the cell.
    • They remove and recycle cell structures. 

    • Lyso = loosen
    • Somes (from the Greek word soma) = body 
  52. What is the word used to describe when something is toxic to a cell?
    [Cyto] = cell  [Toxic] = harmful 

  53. Describe what happens when a structure is damaged by a species containing oxygen?
    Toxins can produce harmful effects by producing highly reactive molecules which contain oxygen. These then causes oxidative damage. 
  54. Cell Reproduction: Mitosis : Describe how Mitosis works and their function?
    • Mitosis is a type of cell division which creates 2 identical Diploid cells from original mother cell
    • Only 1 division takes place and there are 46 Chromosomes in the daughter cells. 

    These cells are used for growth and repair.
  55. Describe the rates of Mitosis in Skin, Nerve and Liver cells?
    • 1. Skin Cells - continuous Mitosis takes place.
    • 2. Nerve Cells - no Mitosis soon after birth.
    • 3. Liver Cells - do not undergo continuous Mitosis unless repairing minor damage.
  56. Cell Reproduction: Meiosis : Describe how Mitosis works and their function?
    • Meiosis is a type of cell division which creates 4 non-identical Haploid cells from original mother cell. 
    • 2 divisions take place and there are 23 Chromosomes in the daughter cells. 

    These cells are used for making eggs/sperm and reproduction. 

    Haploid Cells = Gametes (sex cells) 
  57. Describe how fertilisations works?
    • Fertilisation works when there is a fusion of male and female gametes.
    • ⬇︎
    • A Zygote cell is a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes (sex cells). 
    • ⬇︎
    • The zygote then undergoes mitosis and develops into the embryo and finally a foetus.
  58. Describe what a Mutation is and what are the causes?
    • A mutation is a change in the genetic information (change in DNA sequence). 
    • Causes for Mutation: 
    • 1. Chance (spontaneous mutations). 
    • 2. Induced by mutagenic agents e.g. X-Ray.
  59. List the for types of Mutations?
    • 1. Substitution.
    • 2. Deletion. 
    • 3. Insertion. 
    • 4. Inversion.
  60. Describe how Protein Synthesis works?
    • Cells use the DNA code in the nucleus as a template for the synthesis in proteins.
    • ⬇︎
    • Transcription - a copy of one gene from the DNA segment is made into MRNA (messengerRNA). This then travels out of the nucleus to a ribosome where translation occurs. 
    • ⬇︎
    • Translation - the ribosome reads the code and synthesises a chain of amino acids to form the required protein.
  61. What are the 4 factors that might affect diffusion rate in Passive Transport?
    • 1. Steepness of gradient. 
    • 2. Temperature (Higher temp. increases speed of body processes e.g. exercise).
    • 3. Mass.
    • 4. Surface Area.
  62. Describe Passive Transport?
    Passive transport moves down the concentration grade (from a high to low  concentration of molecules) and doesn't require any energy to do so.
  63. Name the 3 types of Osmotic conditions?
    • 1. Isotonic - same amount of water as blood.
    • 2. [Hypo]Tonic - less solubles, more water.
    • 3. [Hyper] Tonic - more solubles e.g. sodium, less water. 

    • Hypo - low
    • Hyper - high 
  64. Name 3 types of Passive Transport?
    • 1. Simple Diffusion - movement of small substances e.g. gases. 
    • 2. Facilitated Diffusion - movement of larger substances like glucose with the aid of protein career molecules imbedded in the plasma membrane. 
    • 3. Osmosis - movement of water (soluble) when balance cannot be achieved by simple diffusion(molecules too big).
  65. Describe Active Transport?
    Active transport moves up the concentration grade (from low to high) which means it requires ATP (energy) to transport the molecules.
  66. Name 3 types of Active Transport?
    • 1. Sodium Potassium Pump - specific "lock/key" carier sisters for molecules like sodium & potassium.
    • 2. Endocytosis - fusing of substances to be able to pass through the membrane. Phagocytosis - "cell-eating" large particles. Pinocytosis - "cell-drinking" small particles. 
    • 3. Exocytosis - removal of waste material.
  67. What does Histology mean?
    The study of the microscopic structure of tissue.
  68. What are Cell Junctions?
    Cell Junctions are contact/communication points between the adjacent plasma membranes.
  69. Describe the 2 different types of Cell Junctions?
    • 1. Tight Junctions - the function is to form a seal to prevent molecules passing through. Found in stomach, intestines etc. Prevents contents of these organs leaking into blood/other tissues. 
    • 2. Gap Junctions - small fluid filled tunnels between neighbouring cells e.g. muscle/nerves.
  70. Name the 4 Tissues Types and their functions?
    • 1. Epithelial - cover & protect body. 
    • 2. Connective - provide support.
    • 3. Muscular - movement. 
    • 4. Nervous - control & communication.
  71. What does Epithelial Tissues consist of and where do we find it?
    • Consists of: closely packed cells arranged in continuous sheets
    • We find them in: blood vessels, heart, lungs, skins, eyes. etc.
  72. Name and describe 3 Epithelial Cells?
    • 1. Columnar Cells (column-like) - much higher than wide. 
    • 2. Cuboidal Cells (cube-like) - look like squares.
    • 3. Squamous Cells (flattened, scale-like) - flat and not very tall. 

    These different cells can be arranged to form different structures. 
  73. What are glands?
    Glands are single or groups of epithelial cells that produce secretions. 
  74. What is the difference between Exocrine and Endocrine Glands?
    • [Exo]crine glands secrete their products into ducts e.g. saliva, sebum. 
    • [Endo]crine glands enter interstitial fluid and then diffuse into blood. Secretes hormones into blood. 

    • Exo - exit
    • Endo - enter 
  75. Connective Tissues consists of 2 basic elements. What are they?
    • 1. Extracellular Matrix - medium of how cells are suspended to give structural support to surrounding cells.
    • 2. Widely spaced cells.
  76. What us Extracellular Matrix made of and what does it contain?
    • Made of ground substances and Fibres. 
    • Contains many substances including water & Hyaluronic Acid & Chondroitin Sulphate.
  77. Name 3 types of Connective Tissue?
    • 1. Fibroblasts (makes fibres) - secretes protein fibres to make collagen, elastin & matrix
    • 2. Adipocytes - store triglycerides(fat)
    • 3. Leukocytes(white blood cells) 
  78. Name 3 Leukocytes(white blood cells)?
    • 1. Macrophages - they initiate defence mechanisms. 
    • 2. Plasma Cells - synthesise and secrete micro bodies for defence. 
    • 3. Mast Cells - produce & release heparin, histamine (inflammation).
  79. Name the 8 Connective Tissue Functions?
    • 1. Structural
    • 2. Transport
    • 3. Protection
    • 4. Support & Interconnection
    • 5. Insulate
    • 6. Store Energy
    • 7. Produce Blood & Lymphatic Cells
    • 8. Defense & Repair
  80. Describe what Membranes are?
    Membranes are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line parts of the body.
  81. Name 4 types of Membrane?
    • 1. Synovial
    • Made up of connective tissue & elastic fibres. 

    • 2. Cutaneous -skin. 
    • 3. Mucous
    • 4. Serous 
    • Made up of epithelial & connective tissue. 
  82. Describe how the Mucus Membrane works?
    • The mucus membrane lines entire digestive, respiratory and genitourinary tracts
    • The mucus membrane secretes enzymes needed for digestion.
  83. What are the 2 functions of the Mucous Membrane?
    • 1. Protects - lining of membrane from mechanical & chemical injury. 
    • 2. Traps - foreign particles in the respiratory.
  84. What are Serous Membranes?
    Serous membrane is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of which secrete serous fluid. This is to reduce friction between membranes. 
  85. What are the layers of connective tissue within the Serous membranes called?
    • The double layer of loose areolar(small area) connective tissue are: 
    • 1. Parietal Layers line a cavity. - outer 
    • 2. Visceral Layers surround organs - inner.
  86. Name 3 sites Serous Membranes are found?
    • 1. Pleura - lining the thoracic cavity.
    • 2. Pericardium - lining the pericardial cavity & surrounding heart. 
    • 3. Peritoneum - lining the abdominal cavity & surrounding abdominal organs.
  87. What are Synovial Membranes and what do they do?
    Synovial membranes are connective tissue which lines cavities of freely movable joints.
  88. What does Synovial Membrane secrete and why?
    Synovial membranes secrete clear, sticky, oily synovial fluid which lubricates and nourishes the moveable joint.
Card Set
Cytology - Basic Genetics - Histology
Lecture 1