Biology IB Chapter 1.2

  1. The ultrastructure of cells is
    everything that can be seen with an electromicroscope.
  2. SEM:
    Scanning electron micrograph (2D)
  3. TEM:
    Transmittance electron micrograph (3D)
  4. The nucleus is a double
    membrane structure
  5. Prokaryotic:
    before nucleus
  6. eukaryotic
    after nucleus
  7. Genetic Material:
    is free in Prokaryotic cells (DNA form)

    is in the nucleus in Eukaryotic Cells (DNA)
  8. Nucleoid Region:
    one circular molecule in prokaryotic cells

    several, open ended molecules in eukaryotic cells
  9. ribosomes:
    70s ribosomes in prokaryotic cells

    80s ribosomes in eukaryotic cells
  10. mitochondria:
    no mitochondria in prokaryotic cells

    yes mitochondria in eukaryotic cells
  11. membrane bound organelles:
    no membrane bound organelles in prokaryotic cells

    internal compartmentalization through membrane bound organelles in eukaryotic cells
  12. size:
    smaller prokaryotic cells

    way bigger eukaryotic cells
  13. ribosomes are the only organelles
    that are not membraned.
  14. Coli Pilli:
    smol lines coming from cell membrane used for attachment and sexual reproduction
  15. Coli Capsule:
    The outest part of the E. Coli made of polysaccharides used for attachment
  16. Coli Cell Wall:
    Is between capsule and plasma membrane used for protection and shaping. Made out of peptidoglycan
  17. Coli Plasma Membrane:
    Way inside, controls the entry and exit of substances

    Does binary fission (reproduction)
  18. E. Coli Nucleoid of DNA:
    All information is encoded in the DNA
  19. Coli Plasmid:
    Contains extra genetic info

    Cells could function without a plasmid
  20. Coli Cytoplasm:
    All metabolic reactions take place

    Is not compartmentalized
  21. Coli Ribosomes:
    Smol dots, protein synthesis
  22. Coli Flagellum:
    Long lines coming from bottom of cell

    Allows movement
  23. Binary Fission:
    Simple form of cell division

    Asexual reproduction
  24. 3 Steps: binary fission
    • DNA replication
    • The two DNA loops attach to the membrane in opposite poles
    • Membrane elongates and pinches off (cytokinesis) forming two separate, identical cells

    In ideal conditions, can divide every 20 min, which leads to exponential growth

    In eukaryotes, some organelles also undergo binary fission
  25. Extracellular matrix
    • eukaryotic cells 
    • keeps the cells together. The ECM allows cell-to-cell interactions, possibly altering gene expression and enabling the coordination of cell actions within the tissue.
  26. eukaryotic cells 
    Are compartmentalized
    Toxic damaging substances can be isolated

    pH and other such factors can be kept at optimal levels (localized)

    More efficient metabolism (enzymes and substrates are localized and much more concentrated as they are not spread in the cytoplasm)


    Special functions are localized (organelles)
  27. Chloroplast:
    Has a double membrane and is about the size of a bacteria. Is only present in algae and plant cells. Produces glycose and various other organic compounds through photosynthesis
  28. Nucleus: Nucleus:
    • is bordered by a double membrane referred to as the nuclear envelope. (compartmentalization of DNA, allows for chemical reactions)
    • Has nuclear pores which provide communication of nucleus with the cell and a dense area inside the nucleus which is the nucleolus (ribosome synthesis)
  29. Mitochondria: :
    Powerhouse of the cell. Have their own ribosomes and DNA. Are folded inside into crista, to achieve more space. The inner membrane is filled with a semi-liquid called matrix.
  30. Golgi Apparatus:
    collection, packaging, 
modification, and distribution of materials synthesized in the
 prevalent in glandular cells, such as those in the pancreas, which manufacture and secrete substances.
  31. Lysosomes:
    intracellular digestive centres that arise from the Golgi apparatus.
 breakdown of materials (usually not seen in plant cells) Very dark and dense.
  32. Ribosomes:
    Protein synthesis, no membrane, are made of RNA and protein, are denser and larger in eukaryotic cells
  33. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:
    Protein synthesis and transportation
  34. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:
    Lipid synthesis and transportation
  35. Plant vs. Animal Cells
    Cell Wall: No cell wall in animals, cell wall in plants

    Chloroplast: yes in plants, no chloroplast in animals

    Vacuole: large, central in plants, no or v smol in animals

    Carbonhydrates: stores as starch in plants, stored as glycogen in animals

    Centrioles: no centrosomes in plants, centrosomes in animals

    Flagella, cilia: None in plants, yes in animals
Card Set
Biology IB Chapter 1.2