Bones Achieve Wk 2

  1. Type of cartilage that Contains no blood vessels or nerves and is Surrounded by the perichondrium which is (dense irregular connective tissue) that resists outward expansion.
    There are Three types. – hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage.
    Skeletal Cartilage.
  2. This type of cartliage Provides support, flexibility, and resilience and Is the most abundant skeletal cartilage.
    This type of cartiliage is present in these cartilages:.
    Articular, which covers the ends of long bones.
    Costal, which connects the ribs to the sternum.
    Respiratory, which makes up larynx, reinforces air passages.
    Nasal, which supports the nose.
    Hyaline Cartilage.
  3. This type of cartliage is similar to hyaline cartilage, but contains elastic fibers.
    It is Found in the external ear and the epiglottis.
    Elastic Cartilage
  4. This type of cartilage is Highly compressed, with great tensile strength and Contains collagen fibers.
    It is Found in menisci of the knee and in intervertebral discs.
    Fibrocartilage
  5. Growth of Cartilage.

    Appositional, – cells in the perichondrium secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage.
    Interstitial, – chondrocytes inside the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within.
    Calcification, (hardening), of cartilage occurs
    During normal bone growth and During old age.
    Growth of Cartilage
  6. Classification of Bones. 

    Bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
    The answer is, Axial skeleton.
  7. Classification of Bones.
     Bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip.
    The answer is, Appendicular skeleton.
  8. Classification of bones by shape.

    longer than they are wide, (humerus).
    The answer is, Long bones.
  9. Classification of bones by shape.

    Cube-shaped bones of the wrist and ankle.
    Bones that form within tendons, (patella).
    The answer is, Short bones.
  10. Classification of bones by shape.

    Thin, flattened, and a bit curved, (sternum, and most skull bones
    The answer is, Flat bones.
  11. What are the five Functions of Bones?
    Support, Protection, Movement, Mineral Storage, Blood Cell Formation.

    • 1. Support, – form the framework that supports the body and cradles soft organs.
    • 2. Protection, – provide a protective case for the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs.
    • 3. Movement, – provide levers for muscles.
    • 4. Mineral storage, – reservoir for minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus.
    • 5. Blood cell formation – hematopoiesis occurs within the marrow cavities of bones.
  12. Bone markings and projections.

    Large rounded projection that may be rough ended.
    The answer is, Tuberosity.
  13. Bone markings and projections.

    Narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent.
    The answer is, Crest.
  14. Bone markings and projections.

    Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process. End of femur bone.
    The answer is, Tronchanter.
  15. Bone markings and projections.

    Narrow ridge of bone, less prominent that a crest.
    The answer is, Line.
  16. Bone markings and projections.

    Small rounded projection or process.
    The answer is, Tubercle.
  17. Bone markings and projections.

    Raised area on or above the condyle.
    The answer is, Epicondyle.
  18. Bone markings and projections.

    Any bony prominence.
    The answer is, process.
  19. Projections That Help To Form Joints.

    Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.
    The answer is, Head.
  20. Projections That Help To Form Joints.

    Smooth, narly flat articular surface.
    The answer is, Facet.
  21. Projections That Help To Form Joints.

    Rounded articular projection.
    The answer is, Condyle.
  22. Projections That Help To Form Joints.

    Armlike bar of bone.
    The answer is, Ramus.
  23. Depressions and Openings of Bone.

    Canal like passageway.
    The answer is, Meatus.
  24. Depressions and Openings of Bone.

    Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucus membrane.
    The answer is, Sinus.
  25. Depressions and Openings of Bone.

    Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface.
    The answer is, Fossa.
  26. Depressions and Openings of Bone.

    Furrow.
    The answer is, Groove.
  27. Depressions and Openings of Bone.

    Narrow, slitlike opening in bone.
    The answer is, Fissure.
  28. Depressions and Openings of Bone.

    Round or oval opening through a bone.
    The answer is, Foramen.
  29. Gross Anatomy of Bone Textures.

     Dense outer layer of bone.
    The answer is, Compact bone.
  30. Gross Anatomy of Bone Textures.

    Honeycomb of trabeculae, (columned bones) filled with yellow bone marrow.
    THe answer is, Spongy bone.
  31. Long bones consist of a diaphysis and an epiphysis.

    Tubular shaft that forms the central shaft of long bones.
    Composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity.
    Yellow bone marrow, (fat) is contained in the medullary cavity.
    The answer is, Diaphysis.
  32. Long bones consist of a diaphysis and an epiphysis.

    Expanded ends of long bones.
    Exterior is compact bone, and the interior is spongy bone.
    Joint surface is covered with articular,(hyaline) cartilage.
    Allows for free movement at joint.
    Epiphyseal line, separates the diaphysis from the epiphyses.
    The answer is Epiphyses.
  33. Bone Membranes.

    Double-layered protective membraneof bone. 
    Outer fibrous layer is dense regular connective tissue.
    Inner osteogenic layer is composed of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
    Richly supplied with nerve fibers, blood, and lymphatic vessels, which enter the bone via nutrient foramina.
    Secured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers.
    The answer is, Periosteum.
  34. Bone Membranes.

    Delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of bone.
    The answer is, Endosteum.
  35. Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones.

    covered compact bone on the outside. with endosteum-covered spongy bone (diploë) on the inside


    Have no diaphysis or epiphyses


    Contain bone marrow between the trabeculae
    Thin plates of periosteum.
  36. Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones.

    Covered spongy bone, (diploë) on the inside.
    THe answer is, Endosteum.
  37. Microscopic Structure of Bone:, Compact Bone.

    The structural unit of compact bone.

    Lamella, – weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen.
    Haversian, or central canal, – central channel containing blood vessels and nerves.
    Volkmann’s canals, – channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal.
    The answer is, Haversian system, or osteon.
  38. Microscopic Structure of Bone:, Compact Bone.

    Mature bone cells.
    The answer is, Osteocytes
  39. Microscopic Structure of Bone:, Compact Bone.

    Small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes.
    The answer is, Lacunae.
  40. Microscopic Structure of Bone:, Compact Bone.

    Hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal.
    The answser is, Canaliculi.
  41. Chemical Composition of Bone:, Organic.

    Bone-forming cells.
    The answer is, Osteoblasts.
  42. Chemical Composition of Bone:, Organic.

    Mature bone cells.
    THe answer is, Osteocytes.
  43. Chemical Composition of Bone:, Organic.

    Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix.
    The answer is, Osteoclasts.
  44. Chemical Composition of Bone:, Organic.

    unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen.
    The answer is, Osteoid.
  45. Chemical Composition of Bone:, Inorganic.

    Sixty-five percent of bone by mass.
    Mainly calcium phosphates.
    Responsible for bone hardness and its resistance to compression.
    The answer is, Hydroxyapatites, or mineral salts.
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Card Set
Bones Achieve Wk 2
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Bones Achieve Wk 2
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