How many births has the one-child policy been successful at preventing?
What is a shengnu in China?
A "leftover woman," a woman in China who is not married by age 27. They are often highly educated, progressive in their thinking, and have well-paying and interesting professional employment. Unfortunately, they report that they cannot find men who are as accomplished as them and support them in their careers.
In China what age are 90% of women married by? Is getting married in your 30s in China considered stable?
Most women are married by age 35
Marriages between couples in their 30s are the most fragile
What is "demography"?
a form of geography which studies characteristics of human populations
What is the most widely known instrument for assessing the state of the population? What does it do?
A census: is a count of the number of people in a country, region, or city...most are also directed at gathering other information about people such as previous residence, number of people in a household, and income. Usually performed every 10 years
What are "vital records"?
a data source that report births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and the incidence of certain infectious diseases. This data is collected and recorded by city, country, state,a and other levels of government.
What are some limitations of census surveys?
They are expensive and therefore occur infrequently, especially in poor countries
They misrepresent data (no way to identify gay couples from heterosexual roommates)
Under/over represented areas get improper funding in public goods
What country has the sparsest inland density in the world?
What are some geographical factors that shape population distribution around the world?
Degree of accessibility, topography, soil fertility, climate and weather, water availability and quality, and type and availability of other natural resources
What cultural factors may raise population density?
Religion (sacred spaces like Mecca), tradition, or historical experience
What is the most populous continent on earth?
Almost all of the world's inhabitants live on __% of the land. Why?
10%...they live near the edges of landmasses or near bodies of water
Approximately what percent of the population live north of the equator? What percentage of the total land area is located above the equator?
90% of people live above the equator
63% of the world's land is above the equator
What type of climate does most of the world's population live?
In temperate, low-lying areas with fertile soils
Define "population density":
a numerical measure of the relationship between the number of people and some other unit of interest expressed as a ration
Define "crude (population) density" aka "arithmetic density":
What is the problem with crude density?
the total number of people divided by the total land area
It is one dimensional (it tells us very little about variations in the relationship between people and land)
Example: Population 20 people → Land is 5 square miles → 20 divided by 5 is 4, so 4 people per square miles
What is nutritional density?
the ratio between the total population and the amount of land under cultivation in a given unit of area
What is agricultural density?
the ratio between the number of agriculturists--people earning their living or subsistence from working the land--per unit of farmable land in a specific area
What is "health density"?
measured as the ratio of the number of physicians to the total population
Provide some examples of the type of "composition" examined by geographers which provides valuable insights into the ways in which the population behaves now and how it might behave in the future.
total number of males and females
number and proportion of senior citizens and children
number and proportion of people active in the workforce
Is east or west China more populated?
East, specifically near the coasts
Where are the highest prefecture densities located in the world? What is their population density?
5514 people per kilometer around Tokyo
Did population growth change very much in the between 8000 BCE and 1000 CE?
No, not much change at all
When did the global population begin to grow rapidly? What was the impetus of this change?
the 1800s through industrialization and advances in medicine
What is the "Malthusian Approach" in terms of population?
Feared that the population would grow substantively beyond what the world could sustain → outpace the ability for the Earth to support it → and that war, famine, and disease will curb population
If a population “explosion” is not the problem with world sustainability -- what is?
Land and Resource Management: need people to distribute resources → the more dense the population the more difficult it is to distribute resources (like trains and food in Bangladesh)
Why is it such a concerning problem that Highest birth rates and densities are in the poorest parts of the world?
uneven distribution of resources and uneven distribution of people → people and resources are not co-located or distributed evenly across the world → hard to get resources to people who live in nations with a lack of transportation infrastructure
What do geographers see in the relationship between people and water? What is concerning about this relationship?
most large cities are around water → usually salt based and/or estuaries/brackish mixed water → most people live within a few hundred miles of the coasts
We do not have a good distribution of people with distribution of abundant fresh water → water is already a source of conflict in some parts of the world → most analysts believe this will be a problem
Energy is highly dependent on water, and water is highly dependent on electricity
What is physiological density?
number of people per arable unit of land
20 people and 5 square miles of land - (but only 2 are arable) → then you divide 20 by 2 (only the arable miles), so 10 people per square miles ⇒ it matters where people are and how they’re distributed, attention to the spatial patterns
What is strange about the fact that Java is one of the most densely populated areas of the world?
Jakarta is the biggest city so the biggest population is there, but there is not a lot of habitable land (it is very mountainous) → many active volcanoes and steep mountains → a lot of mountain terracing (doesn’t help the environment but helps people spread out more and have more agriculture) but the geography is complicated due to the steep slopes ⇒ people are still there because Java is the heart of contemporary Indonesian culture → the Basal Indonesians consider this home → very fertile land due to the volcanoes ⇒ important trading coast historically (although now it has been overcome by Singapore) ⇒ ⅓ of everything that goes on the water crosses the South China sea
What percentage of the Egyptian population lives within 15 miles of the Nile? Why does this prove that arithmetic density is not always a good measure of density?
This is a perfect example of why Arithmetic Density doesn’t work, people are not living in the desert → the best land in Egypt is on the Nile River/Nile River Delta → replacing land that should be used to grow crops to build apartments/housing on rich land
How are "Crude Birth Rates" (CBR) measured?
# of live births per year per 1,000 people in a given population → Country with population of 2 million and 40,000 live births per year yields rate of: 40,000 divided by 2,000,000 = .02 times 1,000 = 20 per 1,000 Why is it per 1,000 people? To make comparison easie
What is Total Fertility Rate (sometimes just Fertility Rate)?
Number of children born to average woman during “reproductive years” (childbearing years roughly assumed to be 15 to 49 years old) → though in some populations you don’t have teenagers reproducing, and some other countries older people do not reproduce
What fertility rate leads to a stable population?
What countries have the highest birthrates in the world?
Niger (7.5), South Sudan (6.7), Congo (6.5)
What country has the lowest birth rates in the world?
South Korea 1.2
How is infant mortality rate measured?
number of deaths per year of children aged 1 year old or less per 1,000 live births (365 days old or less because 1st year/1st 365 days -- at age “1” you are beginning your 2nd year)
# of deaths 1 year or less per 1,000 live births → # divided by 1,000
Also calculated for age 5 years or less, this is Child Mortality
What is a crude death rate "CDR" and why is it considered crude?
Number of deaths per year per 1,000 people in the population
Why is it crude?:Life expectancy → longest life expectancy are in Canada, Australia, and Europe → lowest life expectancies are in AfricaDeaths per 1,000 → higher in Sub-Saharan Africa & Eastern Europe, lower in developed nations
What is a population pyramid?
Graphic devices representing age/sex composition
What may affect the shape of a population pyramid?
Shows population trends: how many people are old or young, how many people are men or women, if populations are starting to grow or shrink
Insinuates consequences: shows shrinking or aging consequences
Can be affected by: Conflicts/Wars/Dissolution of government/lifestyle choices (drinking/smoking/etc) → significant opioid problems in the US → if many people of a certain age died because of that
If a population was forced to leave
How is Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) also known as the “World Population Growth Rate” measured?
Crude Birth Rate minus Crude Death Rate = the Rate of Natural Increase
Natural, not migration-related population change
How is "doubling time" measured? How are they affected? What does it show?
the number of years it takes for a population to double (all else being equal) → shown in population Pyramids
If you have a long doubling time your population is growing slowly
If you have a short doubling time your population is growing quickly
Parts of Latin America with high DT, Southeast Asia and Africa →
lowest growth in US, Canada, and China
Percentages of 65 years and older: High in Scandinavia and Japan, low in Africa and SEA
What is the set up of a population pyramid? What ages are on top what do each of the sides represent? What can this mean?
Old Dependents on top, Labor force in middle, Young dependents on bottom →
one side is male, one side is female ⇒
If you have a young population: in coming years you may have a good labor pool, and a large population that will be reproducing → that large population will give you a larger population ⇒ with a very traditional pyramid (many young people) there is a concern for population growth
What is demographic transition theory?
the way the population changes in part to economic development → the normal depiction will have 4 stages, but we will focus on 5 stages
Describe characteristics Stage 1 of the Demographic Transition Theory
(Pre-Modern): High Births & High Deaths: not a huge net increase → low population
Population change: static → very little change, very little fluctuations → flat/no growth
Most likely: agrarian/agricultural society → pre-Industrial ⇒ little economy
Distribution of People: very spread out, low density → very dispersed (rural)Birth rates are high because you need lots of kids to help on the farm because the death rate is high, you don’t know if you will have enough children to help → have many kids because some of them will die → primarily doing everything for themselves/subsistence style life →
Young society → not many older adults ⇒ no retirement plans, children take care of their parents → children are social security (kids are an economic asset)
Death rates are high because there are no strong medical institutions/healthcare (die easily)
Describe characteristics of Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Theory:
(Urbanizing/Industrializing): death rate starts to decrease with a lot of people still being born: graph goes up, people start living longer → population starts to grow
First Half of Stage 2: Birth Rates are high, lessens as you go into the first half
Second Half of Stage 2: total population is growing fastest (doubling time is the shortest)
Population starts growing quickly → the faster it’s growing the doubling times are the shortest
What is happening societally? → incipient industrialization → people began congregating together → if we start industrializing what are we doing?
Raising our population densities → some move into villages that may grow into towns and possibly even cities
People start working in factories ⇒ although densely populated areas spread disease faster (different times periods) → but appreciation of healthcare helps people live longer Why are death rates dropping? → beginning to understand healthcare Better access to nutrition & healthcare Cleaner water
Overall sanitation → discovering that water can carry disease and how diseases spread ⇒ more things available to us, more diverse foods available
Describe characteristics of Stage 3 of demographic transition theory:
(Mature Industrialization/Peak of Industry): Death rate goes down, and birth rate goes down, but it takes a long time to get there → it takes a long time to slow down population growth, even if you have less kids, there are still kids being added to the system
First Half of Stage 3: population is growing fastest → death rate rapidly decreasing but then this falls off in the second half
Mindset is still the need to have large families that survive to be our security → it takes time to adapt to the changes that take place
Birthrate is higher than deathrate
Second Half of Stage 3: Birth Rates begin to lower as people realize they do not need such large families
Population growth still rises but begins to taper off near the end of Stage 3
People are migrating into cities → becoming urban ⇒ when we become urban what happens for us?
Theoretically more job opportunities, but this doesn’t translate into everyone being wealthy.
Significantly less space in an urban setting which can create slums and safety/crime issues → greater wage gaps
Housing goes up as you get closer to urban areas (houses in Foggy Bottom are more expensive than in Maryland) because of demand, there is less space in an urban area where demand is higher → people willing to pay more for less...if we live in cities with limited space, our views toward children lead us to have fewer children they become a liability (on the road to them becoming a liability) → housing is stacked/more vertical distribution in cities
Importance of acknowledging societal/cultural differences
Becoming more educated, governments are more developed (potential for Social Security) → segment of society that experiences change
Women play a more direct role in society (getting jobs instead of just being farmers and mothers) → as women take a larger role in society there is a decrease in birth rates ⇒ we see this correlation in most industrialized societies (birthrates fall very rapidly through phase 3) → access to birth control (decreasing infant mortality)
Describe characteristics of Stage 4 of demographic transition theory:
(Post Industrial): Both Death and Birth rates are low, static again → population growth slows down and flattens out as a large population
Much higher population than in Phase 1, but it is static
Economy shifts from industry to service economies → “high tech” /”technological” economy
More urban than rural (high percent urban) → space is very limited and in high demand and therefore expensiveGentrification → people can no longer afford to live in their own neighborhoods because residential space increases
Women are fully incorporated in society: (not 100% equal, women still battle for true equality) but much closer
Children are a liability to their parents, they are an expenseLarger amount of old people → growing populations of elderly people with lowering populations of childbirth
Elderly and children are both economic burdens → Elderly are drawing on the economic system without putting anything into the system → not working and paying taxes like they would be if they were working ⇒ healthcare costs are much higher for elderly → elderly are more expensive to care for (drawing from the system without putting in) → it is a challenge for a country to have an aging population
Why should there be a Stage 5 of Demographic Transition Theory?
there often is a population decline, the birth rate will go below the death rate and the population shrinks → population decline stage
What happens when you have more elderly than young? → population goes down, larger strain on social services because there is an imbalance → more is being taken out than is being put in ⇒ smaller labor force
Infrastructure was created for large working population, and if the population shrinks there may be an imbalance → if your infrastructure ages you may not have the infrastructure to keep it going (roads, schools, hospitals)
What do we do in this situation? → immigration (encouraging young migrants to come and enter the workforce)
What stage is the US in terms of the demographic transition theory? Why?
Phase 4 heading toward Phase 5 (transitional period) → demographers may put us in the transition from 3 to 4 (post industrial, high-tech, women in society, cities are expensive) → certain religious groups have many children in rural areas ⇒ many parts of the country are highly reliant on industry → no universal healthcare in the US → migrants in the US tend to be younger, have many children, are religious (especially from Latin America)
Without migrants we would be in Stage 5 → we would be in a declining population without migrants
Once a country passes through a stage in demographic transition theory, can you regress?
Once you pass through a stage, then theoretically you don’t regress →
However, there are a number of events (natural or created) that can challenge retrograding: Disease, war, natural disaster, genocide, environmental issues (loss of habitat), famine, government policies (one child policies in China or tax incentives for large families)
Why is the demographic transition theory model difficult to make conclusive decisions from?
Because you are looking at many factors (birth and death rates), cultures, religions, etc.
Are there any countries of the world that we would consider in "Stage 1" of demographic transition theory?
Are there any countries in the Western hemisphere that we would put in Stage 2 of demographic transition theory?
How did colonialization affect the natural progression of demographic theory in places like Latin America or India?
There are tremendous influence on many less developed countries (like Latin America and Africa) they did not naturally progress, they have a different scenario demographically
India was becoming more industrialized and then the British colonials came in and destroyed many of their industries (built railroads but did not leave them with strong economies)
In what stages do women begin to consciously have less children?
Conscious decision of women in Late 3 and Early 4 to have less children, may not be possible for women in Stage 2 states
Why did many countries go from Late 1/Early 2 and went right to 3 in demographic transition theory?
due to outside influence of rapid industrialization
What could developed countries do to help bring about a change in phase in demographic transition theory in developing nations? What could be a problem with this?
If we could give benefits to large portions of poor societies we could create change, although if you only do it in certain parts of the country it does not change the lives of that many people
Who was Mao Zedong?
Leader of China (PRC) from 1949 to 1976: believed large families were good for China and a large population was good for China because there was more labor, more soldiers, and more Communist supporters
Why did the Han Chinese population grow so rapidly under Mao Zendong? How did this affec
It was common for the Han Chinese (largest proportion of the Chinese) to have large families → cultural norm, had a leader who was supporting, promoting, embellishing it
Provide 2 examples of how evidence that the Chinese government began to see the challenges of having a very large population in the 1950s:
awareness of the challenges a large population could present → this manifested pretty clearly for many in leadership positions (not chairman Mao and his inner circle) but most others in the 1950s → at the end of the 1950s there was a push to promote family planning → this went until the early 1960s
Example: prior to the end of the 1950s, abortion was illegal → in the 1950s and 1960s those regulations were relaxed because leaders saw challenges in very large population
What was the Chinese "Great Leap Forward"?
starting the end of the 1950s and beginning of the 1960s was an infamous period in the PRC, the Great Leap Forward (58 to 63) → rapid restructuring of agriculture and industry Anyone who criticized this during the period was silenced
One of the things that was organized in terms of industry was production of steel, and the steel produced during this period turned out to be useless, many people and energy focused on steel and it was not of good quality
Farming was turned into gigantic communes (up to 20,000 people) these are unmanageable → agricultural resources were wasted, the people couldn’t be managed, and the land was exhausted → what resulted from this very challenged period → famine → it is believed that 20 to 30 million people died as a result (largest man made disaster)
What was the cultural revolution of the 60s and 70s in China that occurred as a result of the "Great Leap Forward?"
concerns by Mao and his inner circle that some people were becoming too Western in the face of the great catastrophe, there were some saying this didn’t work out and we need to rethink how we do things which lead to concerns from Mao and the cultural revolution →
Cultural revolution was a strict restructuring of Communist ideals in China → era of spying, in fighting, a somewhat turbulent and dark period for the PRC
1976 Mao died → by the time he died, China’s population growth was dramatic → Greater than 850 million by 1976 (already approaching a billion people) ⇒ 2 Child Policy was already partially in place ⇒ ⇒ people in government who wanted population control had their time to strike
Deng Xiaoping ends up in power, and he with others are going to promote really strict policies →
Early 1980s China had more than 1 Billion people (totally out of control) → especially to leaders who could not enforce what they wanted to enforce while Mao was living
What happened to the One Child Policy in China in 1979?
PRC Gov → One Child Policy 1979 → Deng Xiaoping
Mid-late 1980s - back to two child policy in many areas, one child enforced in others
Reduce TFRs and the CBR (thereby reducing RNI)
What is eliminated from traditional family structure with the One Child Policy in China?
No aunts or uncles (parents don’t have brothers and sisters)
No siblings, no sibling relationships
If your child dies, you have no continuing legacy
Describe the propaganda culture of China during the height of the One Child Policy:
Much propaganda was in Mandarin and English →
Pamphlets were given away in schools and education, attempt to reengineer thinking to believe that one child families were the way to go
People were asked to spy on each other → surveillance and espionage (at work, through your child at school, neighbors about if someone was pregnant)
How did the One Child Policy in PRC affect birth control in China?
All state/public services regarding birth control expanded:
Abortion legal, expanded state clinics, couples were encouraged to abort if they were pregnant with a second child
Sterilization was encouraged (height of campaign: 1983/required for coupes with more than one child **spatial variation/geographic variation
What are some examples exceptions made to the One Child Policy in China during the 1980s:
They let minorities have more than one child → mostly the Han Chinese who were told to have only one child, but significant minority groups in the south and the west, they were permitted to have more than one child (usually 2 but it depended on the group and area)
How did governmental variation affect the one child policy in China?
There is variation across China in terms of it’s local governments for a number of reasons → not 100% uniform implementation through all of the local governments, some may be very strict, some are more lenient, some that can be paid off to look the other way, some are just outright corrupt in every way → variation occurs in all governments across the world
Was the one child policy seen as an attack on religious beliefs in China?
This was not seen as an affront to religious beliefs (their belief system was more philosophical in the way it would be offensive to Catholics)
Was there a difference in how the strictness of the one child policy in urban vs rural areas?
big difference between rural and urban areas → urban areas were very crowded and did not have enough space, they needed to make more room → very strict in crowded areas where in rural areas they needed labor for farming
What is the "importance of sons" in Han Chinese culture that lead to problems with the One Child Policy in the PRC?
Retirement/SS: and Daughter’s Responsibility: if you had a daughter she would marry and become responsible to her husband’s parents and you would lose a child to take care of you and do anything for you (you know it is a lost investment) and if you have a son his wife will work on your behalf when you start to age
Business: Sons helped protect/support the family
Sons would go to war for their fathers
Better property distribution/better quality land for males
Protection of the family name (a way of honoring your ancestors for Han Chinese tradition by having sons)
What are the problems that arose from favoring sons in Han Chinese culture during the One Child Policy in the PRC?
“Worldwide” millions of women are “missing” → selective abortions
Daughters placed into orphanages and went into the international adoption pool
Unreported female births
Male children better food/care
Female children higher IMRs (not fed as well, not cared for as well, women wouldn’t see a doctor if they were pregnant with a girl)
Missing females leads to millions of Extra-Males
What were some offered incentives for adhering to the one child policy in China?
One Child Families: given priority housing, jobs, education
Bonus in your paycheck
First selection of education (better schools in free education)
Extended family leave
What were some disincentives to not adhering to the one child policy in China?
Fined if you had more than one child
May lose your job/passed up for promotions at work
Possibly forced to abort
Had to pay back benefits you received
Community shunned you (make violators outcasts) → not included in community celebrations/gossiped about
What are 2 exceptions that would allow for people in urban areas to have a second child during the One Child Policy in the PRC?
if you have twins you wouldn’t have to kill one of your twins (officially) →
if you had a female child and she was challenged in a severe capacity you could have another child
What are some of the lasting results of the One Child Policy in China?
They were overall successful in lowering birth rates
Inconsistent enforcement and government support
Population Growth slower (lag-time)
Rural urban differences in the 2000s → many rural areas went underreported when looking at the demographic profile of China and you need to incorporate that into calculations over time
Dual System: Political And Economically: → how is the One Child Policy evolving in 2017
Mass producer of inexpensive goods → other nations (US) are dependent on their production of goods
Very export dependent
They are politically communist, but economically more capitalist
Dramatic spatial differences → because we have open liberalized economies in the East, migration inside of China has become a major issue (Guangzhou)
SEZs and other developmental differences
Density Issues Rapid change economically for generations → largest rural to urban migration ⇒ issue is not with international immigration, but migration from the Western/Central areas to urban areas ⇒ crowded urban areas are into cities ⇒ families used to having larger families in rural areas moving into urban areas
Rapid economic growth, rapid projection through economic strata, women became involved in society → but there are some families who were having larger families because they could afford to
The economy is almost entirely along the East Coast
Describe the international controversy attached with the One Child Policy in China:
Some view it as a human rights violation
Chinese government sees it as a success because they did what they came out to do
4-2-1: 4 Grandparents, 2 Parents, and 1: One child has to take care of two parents and grandparents
Little Emperor Syndrome: because one child has so many adults caring for them, so they become extremely spoiled
Define Political Geography:
analysis of how political systems/structures and international relations (from local to regional to global scales) influence and are influenced by the spatial distribution of cultural, resources, economic activities, and strategic spaces
What is "geo-poli-nomics"?
20 years ago a state department official coined “geo-poli-nomics” because you cannot separate geography, politics, and economics
What other field of research is it impossible to separate Political Geography from?
What does Political Geography investigate?
why political spaces emerge in the places that they do and how the character and configuration of those spaces affects social political, and economic, and environmental understandings and practices. whereas as a political scientist or political sociologists might focus principally on the politics and social structure of a polity, and political geography, would likely emphasis how and why a particular piece of the earth’s surface came to be organized as a discrete political entity
Why would analytical geography be considered integrative? What other fields of study does it integrate?
integrates the social sciences and the physical sciences (sciences enhanced with geospatial techniques)
Multidisciplinary: political science, international affairs, economics, history, anthropology, environmental studies and environmental science
Define an international "boundary":
is a line, a finite and often precise line surrounding and defining territory of a state (boundaries can be heavily disputed, if it is, it is referred to as a “disputed boundary”
Boundary between Afghanistan and Pakistan: splits a large ethnic group which can be highly problematic → this boundary was arbitrarily placed by the British [British messed up a lot of boundary lines, no natural order to their boundary lines] ⇒ the Durand Line goes along a river, desert, mountainous,
Porous/fluid border [the line is not strongly defined] ⇒ most people move freely back and forth across the borders
Define an international "border":
a larger concept: a line, a finite and often precise line surrounding a defining territory of a state → border around the area of the line “border area” → territory in boundary vicinity -- “border region” Boundary is the line itself, border is the region around the line
Define a "frontier":
spatial concept, possible broader region in approaching and often including border region (often leads up to boundary) → peripheral areas less connected and less integrated
Conceptions of a frontier: American west was a frontier region in the 1800s but not considered so anymore → when US was developing westward, areas to the west were areas that were not developed → as we incorporated areas the frontier would push further west [may still have wild spaces but they are attached and designated as national parks]
Alaska could be considered the last frontier but that is still increasingly growing
a precise location of alignment of border which is actually physically marked on the land (border of US and Mexico) [continue beyond this definition
description of boundary alignment in text or in lines drawn on a map → ways to delineate: latitude, longitude, border may follow river
What is a "capital":
geopolitically/strategically planned location of seat of government → usually placed capitals that are next to borders of contested areas [because they firmly believe it is their land, a political statement]
What is the difference between a "forward" and "frontier" capital?
Forward: more politically/strategically located/motivated
Frontier: located in frontier areas
What is the problem with differentiating between "forward" and "frontier" capital
In contemporary political society it is hard to separate these things, and you could argue there is always a political agenda
International Examples: Jerusalem (to exert power over Muslims), Islamabad (to exert power over Kashmir region), Brasilia (to exert power over middle of Brazil)
Domestic Examples: Washington, DC when it was created, Shyanne, Ohio made on railroad, Albany → to offset NYC
What is largest and what is smallest: boundary, border, frontier?
What do international boundaries control the movement of?
people, goods, even ideas
How can international borders control the movement of ideas, what challenges this?
Limits word of mouth communication [keeping people separated], but technology is getting rid of that barrier with social media/email/texting → can still try to control emails/texts/internet it can still interfere, but technology is in some ways diluting the strength of international boundariesCountries could seal themselves off: N Korea → closing the borders to all but a select few you can control who comes and goes and what they do and say Intellectual property laws: someone in one country invents something, and someone else invents something similar → you can take action against misappropriated development
What types of people may borders restrict from entering their countries?
Restrict the entry of criminals and terrorists: restrict the entry of persons with highly infectious diseases, economic migrants, and groups whose identities may not be “accepted” → SARS epidemic, US tried to control the borders to protect from SARS, Ebola, Swine Flu, Syrian refugees wait to get approval to enter Jordan
How are boundary functions changing?
Globalization: transnational problems → international crimes (drug trades), climate change
Technology/Communications: Social media/internet in terms of smartphones (instantaneous knowledge/exposure) → we can see conflict as it’s happening wherever we are ⇒ governments controlling populations ability to get information (N Korea)
Trade: Governments can create trade barriers to disrupt the flow of goods (sometimes through taxation) → governments can do things to disrupt trade to strengthen their border integrity ⇒ World Bank tries to universalize trade laws (but they are not 100% effective)
EU had more fluid movement of trade, internal borders are less strict Drug Trade
Large multinational companies
If countries have strong trade ties they can regulate what comes in their countries
Nothing is truly American anymore → parts come from all over the world, things are assembled all over the world [internationalization of things]
Define Maritime Boundaries:
internationally recognized series of maritime boundaries that create zones → limits of maritime zones established for security/protection resources rights, etc.
1. United States: has not signed onto the convention
2. 1940s: US and others began to assert rights to resources along the continental shelf
3. 1982: adoption of the UN Convention on the Laws Of the Sea (“UNCLOS”)
4. UNCLOS covers: (not an exhaustive list, but key features): territorial seas, exclusive economic zones, navigational rights, international straits, fishing, deep seabed mining, pollution controls, marine scientific research, and dispute settlement
5. Specifics of UNCLOS you need to start with the baseline: mean low water mark of mainland or island shorelines (average lowtide line on the beach) → that is your country’s baseline
5. Before we go out from the baseline, we need to address in from the baseline → waters that are in from the baseline are considered internal waters:Bays (Chesapeake) Rivers
Define "baseline" when referring to maritime borders:
mean low water mark of mainland or island shorelines (average lowtide line on the beach) → that is your country’s baseline
Before we go out from the baseline, we need to address in from the baseline → waters that are in from the baseline are considered internal waters:
Bays (Chesapeake) Rivers
Define "territorial sea":
Extends out 12 nautical miles (1 nautical mile = 1.15 statute mile) from the baseline (mean low tide mark)
1. Zone of “complete” state rights and control, like an extension of land territory (you have 100% rights to this)
2. Provisions for vessels passing through “innocent passage” permitted → if you pass through this line, theoretically you need permission to pass through this area, the country has every right to stop you if you are concerned that they are a threat. If you don’t see them as a threat, you can give them “innocent passage”
3. Exceptions for shape of coast/proximity to neighbors and archipelago states (there is potentially not enough space, peninsulas or islands may be closer than 12 nautical miles) → usually it is the average/midpoint/mean from the two baselines is where you would draw the line separating the water
3a. Example: Say you are 13 nautical miles from your neighbor, 6.5 miles out would be the mean → countries may make negotiations that are different than that
4. Internationally recognized straights do not apply → Gibraltar is only 12 miles apart, Spain and Morocco do not get 12 miles each because there are not enough, they do not even get the 5 nautical miles that they would normally get because that straight is supposed to be internationally recognized to be open area
5. Examples of issues of territory in maritime environment:
5a. Turkey and Greece have a turbulent relationship, but there are areas (islands of Greece and Turkey) that come very close to each other (less than a mile) and you do not have 24 nautical miles to work with → you have to have a very explicit agreement between the two countries, it is often a doorway to conflict, it is very easy for one country to appear to be in the waters of another countries and this can cause problems 5b. Southeast Asia: Malaysia and Singapore have a very narrow strait that separates them, but then Singapore and Indonesia are also very close together → less than 1 mile between Malaysia (peninsular Malaysia) and Singapore and about 5 miles between Singapore and Indonesia
Define "contiguous zone" in terms of maritime borders:
from territorial zone another seaward 12 miles (12.01-24 nautical miles) that permits states to prevent or punish infringements of their customs, fiscal, or sanitation laws
This is the buffer/enforcement zone: Protects the area from: customs/immigration, environment/pollution, economic trade/taxation →
From students: You can stop ships before they come in illegally/breaking embargos/stop criminals from entering, prevents smuggling, prevents security risks, control taxation/economy going in and out
Territorial sea is an extension of the land, but the contiguous zone gives you an enforcement zone that can help protect your territorial sea → a control zone, a police zone → through this twelve miles you are supposed to be protecting the territorial twelve miles → they are 2 distinct zones (although in reality it is like another 12 miles) ⇒ many of these zones are negotiated through the UN
What is the "Exclusive Economic Zone" (EEZ)?
state has rights over resources on surface, in water, on the sea floor, and under the sea floor (resource exploration and exploitation) from 200 nautical miles out from the baseline→ no one else is legally supposed to exploit/explore without the permission of the state (bound under the convention) → we now have the technology today to enforce this, but if a ship doesn’t they will often break this rule and this leads to common conflicts
What is the "continental shelf argument" in terms of maritime borders?
if your continental shelf extends beyond 200 nautical miles you can make an argument at the UN that you should have an EEZ that extends beyond that 200 miles to the entire shelf
What are "fishing zones" in terms of maritime borders?
same as EEZ, but we have custom agreements): fishing zones are customarily 200 nautical miles out from the baseline → within the EEZ and fishing zones, movement through the area is free to international travel, but you are not allowed to exploit the resources → the UN enforces this, punishment is a fine
What is a "continental shelf"?
an underwater extension of the continent that changes massively over time with sea level, if the sea level lowers the continent is more visible if sea level rises it is less visible → definition of the continental shelf and criteria for the establishment of its outer limits, the definition of the continental shelf and the criteria by which a coastal state may establish the outer limits (check blackboard for more info)
Why is the melting of arctic sea ice such an important contention between countries?
new geopolitical climate as a result of climate change → the shipping lanes are open in the summer in the northern hemisphere because that is when we have the least amount of sea ice → why is it significant that there are now shipping lanes in the arctic (it is much faster to go through these areas than to go through the Panama canal in these senses) → it is much more economical to go through the Arctic sea than in Panama → shipping in this area is just starting ⇒ now that we have these shipping lanes opening, we have tensions between US and Canada because they disagree about who should be allowed in these waters, Russians and Europeans can now ship things much faster to Asia ⇒ this creates a new geopolitical economy in this area ⇒ theoretically it could have an impact on commerce in other parts of the maritime shipping world
What does the "Arctic council" do?
there are indigenous people who do not follow these maritime rules, their lives are changing → → now there are countries who say they have legal rights to exploit resources in this area and the indigenous people are suffering ⇒ the Arctic council is supposed to be a powerful voice for these communities, but they currently do not have a strong voice, the pressure of economic development are much stronger pull factors than the weight of the arctic communities
What is the biggest ongoing maritime discussion (argument) in the UN?
about maritime boundaries the arctic and the want to exploit resources (oil and natural gas) → extensive pools of these resources in the north (Russia has a massive gas field off its coast) ⇒ breaking records for the least amounts of most ice in late winter, and the biggest amount of melted sea ice in summer (blackboard has sea ice graphics) ⇒ over time there is less and less sea ice, and therefore more water to exploit
What country planted a flag on the bottom of the sea floor in the Arctic Ocean?
Why is there an international concern about manmade islands built by China in the South China Sea?
China claims the entire regions, by building artificial islands they are extending their claim on the Spratlys islands (they are like rocks, no agriculture or resources) → we are concerned with the fact that the more islands you control, the farther you can extend your control over the South China Sea
How much of the world's shipping goes through the South China Sea?
Why does China want control over the South China Sea so much?
Because 1/3rd of the world’s shipping goes through the SCSThere are large resources of oil and gas under the sea floorIf China had control of the islands and seas, it would give them a significant military strategic advantage over smaller countries around the area → gives them a strategic edge in a highly contested region
What is the air space dimension?
the international boundary rights/sovereign territory rights extend to center of the Earth & to top of the Atmosphere (THEORETICALLY)
Over sovereign territory and over water 12 nautical miles out from coastal baseline → this is more definable than “airspace dimension”
In terms of the air space dimension, If we don’t go from the land surface to the ends of the atmosphere (which there may not be an end), what do we do?
We don’t agree → there is not a single agreed upon airspace dimension (ranges from <18.6 to >62 miles are commonly used) ⇒ what does it mean to say your territory has a particular airspace range? → need to be careful about satellites, airplane (if you commit a crime on an airplane) ⇒ you have to have permission to go over someone’s country to transport people or goods ⇒ just like we have very complicated situations with territorial sea because of proximity to other countries, we have those same types of issues with the airspace as well → you may pass in and out of other countries several times on other flights because of complications of a border region
Why are international cooperative systems for commercial flights so important to the air space dimension?
sometimes accidents and incidents occur: (we don’t have internationally recognized system): [mosts airlines only go up to 30,000 feet, which is almost definitely in someone’s airspace] You can institute no fly zones (try to control who and what goes into your airspace), you could install anti-air missiles, military operations trying to extend air support you have to have rights depending on the country, for airlines thousands and thousands of flights everyday go over various countries, all of those have to be agreed upon if they are changing airspace (mistakes/issues are inevitable)
Provide three examples of incidences where there was international conflicts in terms of commercial flights in the air space dimension:
1983: Korean airliner shot down by USSR (BBC) → Blackboard
US says China is intercepting US military planes in an “unsafe manner” → China blames US for spy plane-fighter collision → caused one of the US planes to make an emergency landing in Hainan, China (made an international issue with China holding the crew and plane for a while, they eventually returned them, but it was very concerning) --> Crew on board destroyed all the sensitive material that they could --> The crew was held in the PRC for 10 days --> The Plane was eventually returned to the US after several months
Issues Currently: the US bombers are flying too close to the Koreans → Koreans believe that the US has already declared war, and they are claiming that any US bomber in their vacinity is a security threat that they will shoot down
What is the Criteria of States: Criteria → Defined Territory & Independent Sovereignty (not all states fit this mold)...what are the 7 aspects of this criteria?
1. Recognition by Other States of World/International Community → if they are not recognized internationally, they are at a disadvantage
2. Effective Government/Substantial Degree of Control: → example of countries who do not have this: Somalia, Yemen, South Sudan, Syria → either weak governmental control, groups fighting against the government
3. Capacity to Enter into Formal Relations with Other States: economic, resource, humanitarian, defense/military, enforcement, etc.
4. Expectation of Permanence: expectation that a state will remain a state permanently
5. Internal Circulation Systems: transmission of goods, transportation for people to move about, ideas, etc. within borders
6.Permanent Population: the entire population should not be refugees or migrants passing through
7. Organized Economy:
Define "devolution" in terms of state sovereignty:
pressure diminishing governmental control → if the government starts to lose control it devolves, those pressures are what starts the government to lose it’s power/integrity
Can be changed through centrifugal or centripetal forces
Define "centrifugal forces" in terms of state sovereignty:
Centrifugal (devolutionary forces dividing a country/nation → divisive, pulls things apart)
Examples of government centrifugal forces: religions, economic divides, languages, natural resources, geographic identity
Define "centripetal" forces in terms of state sovereignty:
(unifies → pulls things together) Forces
outside threats (common enemies), natural disasters (common obligation to help, natural disasters do not discriminate specific political, religious, economic), sports, tragedy (people come together to feel a common sense of loss, feel unified in the tragedy, feel unified in trying to help), an inclusive civic identity, military victories, music/entertainment
True of False: Most things that are centrifugal or centripetal can work the other way as well
Define "separatism" in terms of state sovereignty:
phenomenon in which a group seeks to pursue independence from their country (desire to break off)
Often ethnic (cultural) in nature [doesn’t have to be ethnic]: linked to major grievances such as persecution, forced assimilation [fear of losing identity], lack of autonomy, denial of access to country’s power structure
Common factors leading to separatism (not extensive): Ethnicity, political ideology (nationality), religion, language, economic ideology/economic differences, etc.
Current separatist movements: Catalans in Spain, Kurdistan, Quebec, Russians in east Ukraine, Texas/AlaskaSeparatist movements from Georgia, Chechnya Kabardino-Balkaria, → South Ossetia and Abkhazia (trying to separate from Georgia even though they are currently part of it)
Define "secession" in terms of state sovereignty:
actual breaking/severing connections between regional unit within a state and the state and breaking/disruption of the political territory (the actual act of breaking off)
Fragmentation of physical space and political control
Ethno-national movements where ethnic group or nations within states are actively operating against the state and control a portion of the country that is operating separately
Goal: to create new and separate state
What is the difference between separatism and secessionism?
Separatism is the process, it is the WANT to be separate (desire)
Secession is structural, it is actually breaking off and leaving (act)
where a country recognizes a group in another country as belonging to it (that is an irredentist claim → argument made by a country that a minority/ethnic group/national group living in an adjacent country rightfully belongs to it (and -- conveniently -- the territory in which they reside) → almost always for territory, not just for the people [governments can make claims regardless of how the people who live there actually feel...the claim is on the part of the government, not on the people → usually it works out though where they agree]
Might have been caused by war/may lead to conflict/war
Example: Nagorno-Karabakh which is a piece of territory inside of Azerbaijan with an Armenian population, Armenia claims that these people and therefore that territory should be theirs
Define and provide examples of "enclaves":
territories belonging to, but separated from states (little island of one country's territory in another country)
Example: Ceuta, Spain → across the Gibraltar strait is an ancient port city called Ceuta that belongs to Spain (when the Moors controlled Spain, this port ended up under Spanish control)
Example: Gibraltar itself is owned by the British, which is considered a British Exclave
territory completely surrounded by another state/territory but internationally acknowledged as belonging to a different country than it is surrounded by → could also be an exclave if it is part of another state (other than that which surrounds it)
Example: Llívia, Spain: is surrounded in France -- so it is an enclave in France, and an exclave of Spain
Another usage of enclave: If there is a French community in an English speaking city, that is a French enclave (just doesn’t belong to another country)
What is the difference between an enclave and an exclave?
An area can be both an enclave and exclave at the same time:
Enclave is what the country surrounding a territory calls it (they envelope the country)
Exclave is what the country it actually belongs to would call it
Describe the growth in UN membership from 1946 on:
Growth in UN membership (<1946 League of Nations)
1900 - world had 51 countries in UN
1950 - world had 76 countries in UN
2016 - world had 193 countries (South Sudan newest entry) in UN
Why would having more countries of the world being a part of the UN be considered a bad thing (in terms of global politics):
because it could lead to more conflict because you may be including in your country some land that another country claimed
Decolonization: created new political entities that shouldn’t have been political entities (threw together disparate entities)
Problems with commerce: countries interact more in an international sense, the more economic activity the less those borders mean
Why would having more countries of the world being part of the Un be considered a good thing (in terms of global politics)
Could stop trafficking of people, drugs, poached animals...theoretically it should mean more control over a wide array of things, but it often doesn’t come out that way
Disallows powerful countries from exploiting resources from other places
In theory, the more countries we have, the more ethnonational groups have autonomy (Croatia)
Define "partition" in terms of state sovereignty":
divide a territory to separate conflicting parties →
examples from class: North & South Korea, Israel/Palestine, Turkish/Greek Cyprus, Sudan/South Sudan
Example from slides: 1974 UN created buffer zone between Greek and Turkish Cypriots
Define "demarcation" in terms of state sovereignty:
move border between conflicting parties (can create a new demarcation of the border) → this happened between Eritrea and Ethiopia (look on blackboard) both countries are still disputing the line
Describe "autonomy" in terms of state sovereignty:
grant special status to an internal territory → somewhat successful for Catalonia for a long time, but that period is rapidly running out
Example: 1995: Dayton Accord -- Bosnia -- sort of combo of the 3 (partition, new demarcation, and autonomy) → drew a new map creating Bosnian and Croat areas with a great deal of autonomy within a loose, weakly governed territory
What are some challenges to state sovereignty? (above and below)
Above: giving up some sovereignty to join larger international groups --> example: United Nations, EU [country members work together but still have sovereignty], Kyoto Protocol)
Below: sovereignty can erode because some groups/organizations circumvent sovereigntyExamples: international NGOs (such as Greenpeace, Amnesty International), TransNational Corporations, Terrorist Organizations
Can NGOs be effective in eroding state-sovereignty?
Transnational Corporations: can exploit resources, they get permission from the government because they cannot exploit those resources themselves, so for money they will either incentivize or force countries to work with them → they can claim they are “too big to fail” because they are a huge chunk of the economy, it could directly hurt the country
Amnesty International: can petition/overrule decisions to imprison people ⇒ can bring a lot of bad press if they do something they do not want → can encourage other governments to boycott products from that country, or get companies to boycott a product which can be problematic
Drug Cartels: can circumvent the government
Define "supranationalism," are there any organizations like this in the world today?
where a state relinquishes authority/sovereignty to an intergovernmental organization (we do not have organizations like this yet) → continuum idea (there are entities that are close to this like maybe the IMF, but there are none that are entirely supranational)
process where people attempt to create political structures/institutions that will enhance their ability to control their own lives and destinies → public policies and officials are directly chosen by popular vote
Varies significantly across political spaces (ie: few countries have the electoral college like the US) → examples: federalized vs centralized, presidential vs parliamentary, quotas for representatives
Degree of transparency varies
Often coexists with social, environmental, and economic processes that may undermine or reinforce state boundaries
What is the US Department of State 11 Broad Pillars of Democracy:
1. sovereignty of the people
2. government based on consent of the governed
3. majority rule
4. minority rights
5. guarantee of basic human rights
6. free and fair elections
7. equality before the law
8. due process of law
9. constitutional limits on government
10. social, economic, political pluralism
11. values of pragmatism , cooperation and compromise
What does the US Department of State seek to do in terms of state sovereignty?
Promote democracy as a means to achieve security, stability, and prosperity for the entire world;
• Assist newly formed democracies in implementing democratic principles;
• Assist democracy advocates around the world to establish vibrant democracies in their own countries; and
• Identify and denounce regimes that deny their citizens the right to choose their leaders in elections that are free, fair, and transparent.
Theoretically, moving toward democracy involves these five actions (as well as some others):
1. Holding representative elections
2. Allowing diverse political parties
3. Opening up economies to FDI, trade
4. Privatization: selling state-owned assets
5. Reducing military spending
What does "freedom house" do in terms of state sovereignty?
decides based on a wide variety of factors what parts of the world are free or not free
Some major causes of demarcation are:
Role of globalization and international community → international influences and pressures ⇒ sanctions, cutoffs in military or economic aid, responses to human rights violations → → people/citizens seeking change
Are sanctions effective? They can only be specific if they have a very specific goal: when a sanction is imposed on a totalitarian regime the totalitarian regime is propped up by a shared enemy, and those sanctions can be the tangible way of expressing oppression or attacks on their economy (could be antagonistic and escalate tension) → but it can also help support totalitarian regimes (making it look like a foreign attack)
Examples: Iran Deal (seems like there is some compliance and that sanctions are having some impact) → movements against Apartheid in South Africa
Economic crisis: hard to survive persistent trade deficits
Dictators devolve to civil democrats (devolutionary) → in most instances since 1974, democracy has been a peaceful transfer of political power from dictators to civilian democrats → not a perfect process
Why would economics make people move toward democracy?
if people believe the government is financially corrupt, if they are unhappy with their current political leaders
Provide examples of countries that the US has tried to turn into democracies:
dominican republic, Grenada, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Uruguay, Perú, Ecuador, Panama, Philippines, Portugal, Chile, Poland, S. Korea, Bolivia, Taiwan
What is the US National Endowment for Democracy:
($20 million each year during the 1990s) → gives money to democratization causes around the world, USAID as well works on democracy
What is the USAID?
US Agency for International Development: ($200 million to promote democratic civic, and political life in new/struggling democracies)
The US is well known for it's International dimensional role of international election monitoring...why is this strange given our previous election?
we had a very challenged election which potentially had tampering, so it is interesting that we have monitored other nation’s elections when our own nations have been called into question in 2016
What is the "Damned if we do damned if we don’t position for the US"?
it is patriotic to scrutinize your own country and try to make it the best it can be, look to see where the mistakes are → everyone wants something from the US → if they get their way they are happy with the US, if they don’t they don’t like the US
Everything that the US does is controversial → No template -- reverse “What happens in Vegas” theory → what happens in the US does not stay in the US (what happens in Honduras stays in Honduras, it does not affect the rest of the world) → everything the US does affects the entire world ⇒ very unique position to be in
Where is Bosnia?
located on the Balkan Peninsula (situated between Adriatic/Mediterranean and the Black Sea in the Middle East)
What was the country of Yugoslavia made up of before it broke apart?
Bosnia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and the “Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” →
it was very small, smaller than the US Mid-Atlantic region → maps on BlackBoard → timeline of Yugoslavia on Blackboard
What does "Yugoslavia" mean?
Yugoslavia means “land of the Southern Slavs” → South Slavs settled Balkans in the late 500s CE
List the 9 ethnic groups that made up Yugoslavia:
Serbs, Croats, Muslims (“Bosniaks”), Slovenes, Hungarians, Macedonians, Montenegrins, and the Albanians (ethnic Albanians in Kosovo are “Kosovars”)
What is the difference between Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks?
They all have the same ethnic heritage coming back in time → they have created, over time, very sharply perceived ethnicities over time → subdivided groups and perceived dramatic differences between the groups
Serbian: Cyrillic alphabet (Greek based), speak “Serbians” (same language as Croatian) and they are Orthodox Christian
Croats: Latin Alphabet, speak “Croatian” (same as Serbian), and Roman Catholic
They are mostly the same except for using the alphabet that they use, they are all Christians and they all speak the same language (give it different names), but they have this divide → is this worth killing people over?
Bosniaks: the Slavic Muslims of Bosnia, speak “Bosnian” (same as Croat and Serbian), the use the Latin alphabet, and they are mostly Muslim
At the time of independence for Bosnia what was the population percentages?
Bosniaks 44%, Serbs 32%, and Croats 18% → breakup of Yugoslavia coincide with the end of the Cold War which lead to the breakup of the USSR ⇒ with that breakup we started to have constituent parts that are trying to gain their independence