Embryology Ch. 11&13

  1. Gland:
    A structure organ that produces a secretion necessary for normal body functioning.
  2. Two types of glands:
    • Exocrine
    • Endocrine
  3. Exocrine:
    duct type glands - use system of ducts for delivery of product.
  4. Endocrine:
    (ductless) gland that delivers product directly to bloodstream.
  5. Salivary glands
    • Belong to exocrine family.
    • Major & minor.
    • Composed of epithelium & connective tissue.
  6. Major glands:
    • 1. Paratid - 25% -  Serous
    • 2. Submandibular - 60% - Mucoserous
    • 3. Sublingual - 10% - Mucous
  7. Minor glands:
    • Scatter throughout the oral mucosa. (buccal, labial, & lingual).
    • Mostly mucous
  8. Hyposalivation, AKA xerostomia
    • Can be caused by radiation & medicatios.
    • Bad breath, tissue is dry & unprotected
    • canker sores
  9. Sialolith:
    blockage of duct from stone formation or trauma to the duct opening.
  10. Mucocele:
    retention of saliva (minor salivary gland).
  11. Ranula:
    • Retention of saliva in major salivary gland. (Submandibular)
    • Can be life threatening.
  12. von Ebner salivary glands:
    The exception to minor salivary glands contain only serous cells.
  13. Salivary glands begin to form ________.
    between the 6th & 8th weeks of prenatal development
  14. The three major salivary glands begin as ______.
    epithelial proliferations, or buds, fro the ectoderm lining of the primitive mouth.
  15. The minor salivary glands arise from _______.
    ectoderm & endoderm associated w/ the primitive mouth.
  16. Nicotinic stomatitis:
    the hard palate is whitened by hyperkeratinization caused by the heat from tobacco use.
  17. Thyroid gland:
    • Endocrine gland.
    • Produces thyroxine (T3) & triiodothyronine (T4) hormones that stimulates the metabolic rate.
  18. Parathyroid gland:
    • Consist of 4-8 small endocrine glands.
    • Produce parathyroid hormones involved w/ calcium regulation.
  19. Lymph nodes:
    • Composed of incapsulated lymph tissue.
    • Contains lymphocytes of B-cell types.
    • Filter toxins from lymph to prevent their entry into the blood system.
  20. Intraoral tonsillar tissue consists of _________.
    nonencapsulated masses of lymphoid tissue located in the lamina propia of the oral mucosa.
  21. Palatine tonsils:
    • Nonencapsulated tissue
    • Two rounded masses of variable size located on the anterior faucial papilla & posterior faucial papilla.
  22. Lingual tonsils:
    an indistinct layer of diffuse lymphoid tissue located  on the base of the dorsal surface of the tongue,posterior to the circumvallate lingual papillae.
  23. Pharyngeal tonsils:
    • behind uvula, forming incomplete ring of tissue.
    • When enlarged they are considered adenoids.
  24. Lymphadenopathy:
    • enlargement of lymphoid tissue.
    • An increased of lymphocyte production.
  25. Nasal cavity:
    • Lined by respiratory mucosa.
    • Mucosa is very vascular, so the air is warm and humidified.
  26. Goblet cells:
    keep mucosa moist, provide humidity, and trap any foreing materials from the inspired air.
  27. Nasal conchae:
    • provide combulated surface area for goblet cells.
    • 3 projecting structures.
  28. Olfactory mucosa:
    • On the roof of the nasal cavity known as cribiform plate.
    • Where receptors for smell are located.
  29. Paranasal sinuses:
    • paired air-filled cavities.
    • Serve to lighten the skull bones, act as sound resonators, & provide mucus for the nasal cavity.
  30. What are the four paranasal sinuses?
    • Frontal
    • Sphenoidal
    • Ethmoidal
    • Maxillary
  31. Sinusitis:
    • Inflamation of the respiratory mucosa of the nasal cavity & paranasal sinuses.
    • Stuffed-up feeling
    • Sinus pressure
    • Result of allergies or respiratory tract infection.
  32. Chronic sinusitis:
    Surgical treatment may be needed. Use of rubber dam may breathe through the mouth, causing chronic gingivitis of the maxillary anterior teeth.Maxillary posterior teeth are in close proximity to the maxillary sinus, maxillary sinusitis can sometimes result as infection spreads from a periapical abscess associated with one of the roots of a maxillary posterior tooth
  33. Dentin:
    • Composed as same materials as enamel, not as mineralized.
    • 70% inorganic
    • 20% organic
    • 10% water
    • Is what gives the tooth the yellowish hue.
    • softer than enamel
    • Avascular (own blood suply).
  34. Predentin:
    is a mesanchymal product consisting of nonmineralized collagen fibers produced by the odontoblast.
  35. Odontoblasts:
    were the out cells of the dental papilla before the apposition stage of tooth development. Dentin and pulp have similar developmental backgrounds because both are originally derived from the dental papilla of the tooth germ. Produced approximately 4(um) of predentin daily during tooth development, similar to the amount of enamel matrix produced daily by the ameloblasts on the other side of the DEJ.
  36. Appositional growth:
    of dentin, unlike enamel occurs throughout the life of the tooth, filling in the pulp chamber of both crown and root.
  37. Ameloblasts:
    are lost after the eruption of the tooth and enamel production ceases, production of dentin continues because of the retention of the odontoblast.
  38. Dentin types:
    • Peritubular dentin 
    • intertubular dentin
    • Mantle dentin
    • Circumpulpal dentin
    • Primary dentin
    • Secondary dentin
    • Tertiary dentin
  39. Peritubular dentin:
    Wall of tubules
  40. Intertubular dentin
    between the tubules
  41. Mantle dentin
    Outermost layer near DEJ underneath enamel.
  42. Circumpulpal dentin:
    Layer around outer pulpal wall.
  43. Primary dentin:
    Formed before completion of apical foramen.
  44. Secondary dentin:
    Formed after completion of apical foramen.
  45. Tertiary enamel:
    Formed as a result of localized injury to exposed dentin.
  46. Sclerotic dentin (transparent dentin):
    found in association with the chronic injury of caries and is noted in increased amounts as the tooth ages, the odontoblastic processes die and leave the dentinal tubules, appears as a dark, smooth and shiny area.
  47. Dentinal hypersensitivity:
    dentin is exposed as a result of caries, cavity preparation, gingival recession, or attrition, the open dentinal tubules may be painful for the patient.
  48. Pulp:
    • Supports formation of dentin.
    • Sensory function.
    • Nutritive
    • Protective function - WBC, IgA
  49. Pulp anatomy:
    • The large mass of pulp is contained within the pulp chamber of the tooth (crown).
    • Pulp tissue is divided into 2 regions.
  50. Pulp tissue has two main divisions:
    • Coronal pulp -  located in the crown of the tooth.
    • Radicular pulp (root pulp) - located in the root of the tooth.
  51. Pulp horn:
    • smaller extensions of coronal pulp into the cusps of posterior teeth, especially prominent in the permanent dentition under the buccal cusp of premolars and in the primary dentition under the mesiobuccal cusp of the molar.
    • Not found on anterior teeth and recede with age
  52. Apical foramen:
    opening from the pulp into the surrounding PDL near each apex of the tooth.
  53. Accessory canals:
    • may be associated with the pulp and are extra openings from the pulp to the PDL.
    • They form when Hertwig epithelial root sheath encounters a blood vessel during root formation.
  54. Aging pulp-horns:
    • Recede with aging.
    • The pulp undergoes a decrease in intercellular substance, water.
    • Cells as it fills with an increased amount of collagen fibers. This decrease in cells is especially evident in the reduced number of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Pulp comes more fibrotic. Pulp cavity become smaller. Treatments can be performed without local anesthesia on older dentitions. Blockage of blood vessels and veins can lead to death of tooth.
  55. Pulp stones:
    • mineralized masses of dentin.
    • They can be free and unattached to the pupal walls, formed during tooth development and aging, may be due to microtrauma.
Card Set
Embryology Ch. 11&13
quiz review