DHE 101

  1. Static occlusal
    • relationships are seen when the jaws are closed in centric relation.
    • The static occlusion can be efficiently observed in occluded study casts and seen directly in the oral cavity when the lips and cheeks are retracted.
  2. Normal (ideal) occlusion:
    Ideal: all teeth in the maxillary arch are in maximum contact with all teeth in the mandibular arch in a definite pattern. Maxillary teeth slightly overlap mandibular teeth on the facial surfaces.
  3. Malocclusion:
    any deviation from the physiologically acceptable relationship of the maxillary arch and/or teeth to the mandibular arch and/or teeth.
  4. Mesognathic.
    Having slightly protruded jaws, which give the facial outline a relatively flat appearance (straight profile).
  5. Retrognathic.
    Having a prominent maxilla and a mandible posterior to its normal relationship (convex profile).
  6. Prognathic:
    Having a prominent, protruded mandible and normal (usually) maxilla (concave profile).
  7. Centric occlusion
    • Posterior teeth are closed in a relaxed normal position.
    • Anterior teeth have light contact.
  8. Who developed classifications for occlusion?
    Dr. Edward Angle in 1890.
  9. Key to occlusion.
    Mesiobuccal cusp of maxillary 1st molar.
  10. Types of facial profiles:
    • Retrognathic - chin back (Sam's friend)
    • Mesognathic - flat face look
    • Prognathic - chin forward
  11. Crossbites:
    • Posterior. Maxillary or mandibular posterior teeth are either facial or lingual to their normal position.
    • This condition may occur bilaterally or unilaterally (as seen on the next slide). Anterior. Maxillary incisors are lingual to the mandibular incisors.
  12. Edge-to-edge bite:
    incisal surfaces of maxillary teeth occlude with incisal surfaces of mandibular teeth instead of overlapping as in normal occlusion.
  13. End-to-end bite:
    molars and premolars occlude cusp to cusp as viewed mesiodistally.
  14. Open bite:
    • Lack of occlusal or incisal contact, posterior teeth in normal occlusion.
    • The teeth cannot be brought together, and a space remains as a result of the arching of the line of occlusion.
  15. Overjet:
    • Maxillary incisors are labial to the mandibular incisors.
    • One way to measure the amount of overjet is to place the tip of a probe on the labial surface of the mandibular incisor and, holding it horizontally against the incisal edge of the maxillary tooth, read the distance in millimeters.
  16. Underjet:
    • Maxillary teeth are lingual to mandibular teeth.
    • Measurable horizontal distance between the labioincisal surfaces of the maxillary incisors and the linguoincisal surfaces of the mandibular incisors.
  17. Malposition of individual teeth.
    • Labioversion - tooth that has assumed a position labial to normal
    • Lingunoversio - position lingual to normal
    • Buccoversion - position buccal to normal
    • Supraversion - elongated above the line of occlusion
    • Torsiversion - turned or rotated
    • Infraversion - depressed below the line of occlusion, for example, primary tooth that is submerged or ankylosed.
  18. During the exam you noticed that your patient's maxillary incisors are lingual to the mandibular incisors; this is called_______.
    Crossbite
  19. During your exam you noticed that the incisal edge of #8 & #9 occludes w/ the cervical 3rd of the facial surface of #24 & #25; this would be identified as ________.
    deep overbite
  20. Occlusal contacts that are made outside of the normal range of function in occlusion are called _______.
    parafunctional contacts.
  21. ANGLE Class I: NEUTROOCCLUSION
    • Molar Relationship: According to Angle, the MB cusp of the maxillary 1st molar aligns with the B groove of the mandibular 1st molar.
    • Canine Relationship: The maxillary canine occludes with the distal half of the mandibular canine and the mesial half of the mandibular first premolar
  22. Normal occlusion
    • Molar Relationship: According to Angle, the MB cusp of the maxillary 1st molar aligns with the B groove of the mandibular 1st molar.
    • Canine Relationship: The maxillary canine occludes with the distal half of the mandibular canine and the mesial half of the mandibular first premolar
  23. Class II or distocclusion
    • Description - Mandibular teeth posterior to normal
    • Facial profile. - Retrognathic; mandible appears retruded
    • Molar relation: the buccal groove of the mandibular first permanent molar is distal to the MB cusp of the maxillary 1st permanent molar by at least the width of a premolar. When the distance is less than the width of a premolar, the relation should be classified as “tendency toward Class II.”

    Canine relation: the distal surface of the mandibular canine is distal to the mesial surface of the maxillary canine by at least the width of a premolar. When the distance is less than the width of a premolar, the relation should be classified as “tendency toward Class II.”
  24. Class II, Division 1:
    • Description: mandible is retruded and all maxillary incisors are protruded.
    • General conditions that frequently occur :deep overbite, excessive overjet, abnormal muscle function (lips), short mandible, or short upper lip
  25. Class II, Division 2:
    • Description: mandible is retruded, and one or more maxillary incisors are retruded.
    • General conditions that frequently occur :
    • maxillary lateral incisors protrude while both central incisors retrude, crowded maxillary anterior teeth, or deep overbite.
  26. Class III - Mesiocclusal
    • Description - Mandibular teeth are anterior to maxillary
    • Facial profile - Prognathic: mandible is prominent / protrudes
    • Molar relation: the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st permanent molar is mesial to the MB cusp of the maxillary 1st permanent molar by at least the width of a premolar. When the distance is less than the width of a premolar, the relation should be classified as “tendency toward Class III.”
    • Canine relation: the distal surface of the mandibular canine is mesial to the mesial surface of the maxillary canine by at least the width of a premolar. When the distance is less than the width of a premolar, the relation should be classified as “tendency toward Class III.”
  27. Types of trauma form occlusion:
    • Primary trauma - excessive occlusal force is exerted on a tooth with normal bone support
    • Secondary trauma - excessive occlusal force is exerted on a tooth with bone loss and inadequate alveolar bone support
  28. Effects of trauma from occlusion:
    • Effects- attachment apparatus (periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone) has as its main purpose the maintenance of the tooth in the socket in a functional state
    • Excessive forces - Circulatory disturbances, tissue destruction from crushing under pressure, bone resorption, and other pathologic processes
    • Relation to inflammatory factors -  Trauma from occlusion does not cause gingivitis, periodontitis, or pocket formation. In the presence of inflammatory disease, the existing periodontal destruction may be aggravated or promoted by trauma from occlusion.
  29. Recognition of signs of trauma from occlusion
    • Clinical findings: - Tooth mobility / Fremitus / Sensitivity of teeth to pressure and/or percussion / Pathologic migration / Wear facets or atypical incisal or occlusal wear / Open contacts related to food impaction. Neuromuscular disturbances Temporomandibular joint symptoms.
    • Radiographic findings - Triangulation = widened periodontal ligament spaces, particularly angular thickening / Vertical bone loss in localized areas / Root resorption / Furcation involvement / Thickened lamina dura /
Author
SusanaMM
ID
335261
Card Set
DHE 101
Description
Occlusion
Updated