Exam 2 - Corbett Ch 2 10 16

  1. Total WBC count for Adult Men and Women
    • 4500-11,000/mm3 %
    • (Amount in cubic millimeter of blood)
    • WBCs is also known as leukocytes
  2. Normal range for bands or stabs
  3. Normal range for segmented neutrophils
    • AKA Polys or PMNs
    • 45-75
  4. Normal range for eosinophils
  5. Normal range for basophils
  6. Normal range for lymphocytes
  7. Normal range for monocytes
  8. A "left shift" indicates what?
    • Neutrophilia due to infection
    • Increased bands/stabs
  9. Neutropenia can indicate what?
    Decreased neutrophils due to various viral diseases (hepatitis, influenza, measles, mumps, and rubella - cause lymphocytosis) or certain bacteria infections (typhoid, tularemia, brucellosis)
  10. What is agranulocytosis?
    • A dramatic decrease in granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils)
    • Can lead to sepsis
  11. Eosinophilia
    • Antigen-antibody reactions
    • Caused by allergic reactions (asthma, hay fever, hypersensitivity to a drug)
    • Also can be caused by parasitic infection (such as round worms), certain skin diseases and neoplasms
  12. Eosinopenia
    • Caused by increased levels of adrenal steroids
    • (patient with allergy that begins corticosteroid therapy)
  13. Increase in Basophils
  14. Decrease in Basophils
    • corticosteroids
    • allergic reactions
    • acute infections
  15. Facts about Lymphocytes
    • Second most common type of WBC, after neutrophils
    • Three types of lymphocytes:
    • T-lymphocytes
    • B-lymphocytes
    • Natural killer (NK) cells
  16. Increase in Lymphocytes
    • viral infections (mumps, infectious hepatitis)
    • pertussis
    • infectious mononucleosis
    • some tumors
    • tuberculosis
    • chronic bacteria infection
    • lymphocytic leukemia (acute and chronic) - ALL is more common in children, CLL is more common in adults
  17. Decrease in Lymphocytes
    • HIV decreases T-lymphocytes (CD4)
    • AIDS decreases total number of lymphocytes
    • Adrenal corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs
    • Autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus)
    • Severe malnutrition
  18. CD4 T-lymphocyte is important in diagnosis and treatment of what?
    • HIV
    • CD4 is a diagnostic case marker for AIDS (<200 is a diagnosis of AIDS)
  19. CD3 T-lymphocyte is important in what?
    • Therapy in transplant recepients
    • (assess the efficacy of OKT3 monoclonal antibody therapy)
  20. Facts about monocytes
    Monocytes are present in tissues as macrophages, and act as phagocytes in some chronic inflammatory diseases
  21. Increase in Monocytes
    • Tuberculosis
    • Protozoan infections (malaria)
    • Rickettsial infections (Rocky Mountain spotted fever)
    • Chronic ulcerative colitis
    • Regional enteritis
    • Some collagen diseases
    • Monocytic leukemia (acute and chronic)
  22. Total serum protein level
    • 6.0-8.0
    • Albumin and Globulin combined
  23. Albumin range
    3.1-4.3 g/dL
  24. Globulins range
    2.6-4.1 g/dL
  25. Where is albumin produced?
  26. Functions of albumin
    • maintain oncotic pressure in the vascular system
    • important for transportation of many substances in the bloodstream (many drugs, lipids, hormones, and toxin are bound to albumin while circulating in the bloodstream)
    • a buffer that functions to maintain acid-base balance in bloodstream
  27. What happens when there is decreased albumin in the serum
    • It allows fluid to leak out into the interstitial spaces and into the peritoneal cavity
    • Total serum calcium will also decrease
    • Caused by liver dysfunction, not seen in acute liver failure because it take several weeks of lack of production before the albumin level decreases.
    • Most common is chronic liver dysfunction caused by cirrhosis.
    • Caused by AIDS, Nephrotic syndrome, preeclampsia and eclampsia, severe burns with related damage to capillaries and blood vessels, severe malnutrition.
  28. An increase in albumin indicates:
    • dehydration
    • (many tests can be falsely elevated by dehydration)
    • Excess protein in the diet is first to be broken down into amino acids and used for various purposes - including storage as adipose tissue.
  29. Cellular Immunity
    • along with delayed hypersensitivity are functions of T lymphocytes controlled by the thymus
    • The presence of adequate cellular immunity can be demonstrated by a positive response to various skin tests.  Clients with negative tests for all the antigens on a skin test panel have anergy - the inability to mount an immune response.
  30. Humoral Immunity
    • Humoral immunity is directly measured by the assessment of the circulating antibodies, secreted by the B lymphocytes, in the serum and in other body fluids, such as saliva, tears, and colostrum.
    • The IgM class of antibodies is produced by B lymphocytes as a first response to a potential infection.
    • (Humor is an old reference to body fluids.)
  31. What are the three ways of grouping bacteria?
    • Gram positive or negative
    • Shape (round/cocci, rod-shaped/bacilli, spiral shaped/spirilla)
    • Aerobic or anaerobic
    • Cocci can also be further classified if it forms pairs (diplococci), strings (streptococci), or clusters (staphylococci)
  32. What kind of bacteria is gonorrhea?
    Aerobic gram negative diplococci
  33. What kind of bacteria is E coli or Pseudomonas?
    Aerobic gram negative bacilli
  34. Is Staph Aureus gram negative or positive?
    • Aerobic gram positive cocci
    • (Staphylococcus aureus - staph = clusters)
  35. Is Strep pneumoniae gram negative or positive?
    • Aerobic gram positive cocci
    • (Streptococcus pneumoniae - strep = strings)
  36. What kind of bacteria is Salmonella?
    Aerobic gram negative bacilli
  37. What kind of bacteria is C. diff?
    • Anaerobic gram positive bacillus
    • (Clostridium difficile)
  38. What kind of bacteria is TB?
    • Acid fast bacillus
    • (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  39. Sensitivity
    Refers to the ability of the antibiotic to inhibit the growth of the bacteria.
  40. Resistant
    When an antibiotic does not inhibit the growth of the bacteria, the organism is resistant to the antibiotic.
Card Set
Exam 2 - Corbett Ch 2 10 16
Corbett Ch 2, Ch 10, Ch 16 Select parts