- Someone's usual pattern of behaviour, feelings, and thoughts.
- Psychological qualities that contribute to an individual's enduring and distinctive patterns of feeling, thinking, and behaviour.
- Enduring: consistent across time and across different situations
- Distinctive: features that differentiate. people from one another.
- Contribute to: factors that causally influence and thus partly explain and individual's tendencies
Aims to define and measure what it can, while acknowledging that there are many other influences on behaviour.
Extraversion vs introversion
- Extraversion: how outgoing, assertive and talkative someone is
- Introversion: how shy and reserved someone is; the opposite of extraversion
- The view that stable personality traits predict behaviour vs the view personality doesn't really exist and the situation is more important.
- Personality can be measured accurately enough to predict behaviour
- But people act differently in different situations.
- Both personality and situation influence behaviour
Freud's view of the mind as an energy system
- Believed that the mind is a system that contains and directs instinctual drives.
- Freud's mental energy- 3 core ideas:
- 1. There is a limited amount of energy
- 2. Energy can be blocked but does not 'just go away'. instead gets expressed in some other manner
- 3. The mind functions to achieve a state of quiescence.
- Catharsis: a release and freeing of emotions by talking about one's problems.
Define psychoanalysis, neo-analytic theorists, analytical psychology
- Psychoanalysis: the study of the dynamics of the mind developed by Freud.
- Neo-analytic theorists: psychodynamic theorists who came after Freud and took his ideas in new directions
- Analytical psychology: the study of the personal and collective unconscious developed by Jung.
Define conscious, unconscious and transference
- Conscious: the part of the mind within our usual awareness
- Unconscious: part of mind outside conscious awareness
- Transference: the way the client perceives the therapist.
Define hysteria and free association
- Hysteria: a psychological disorder characterised by unexplained physical symptoms such as blindness, fainting or paralysis.
- Free association: a psychoanalytic technique involving saying whatever comes into your head.
Freud's topographical model
- Topographical model: highlights the conflict between the pleasure principle and the reality principle.
- Preconscious mind: the barely conscious part of mind that keeps the unconscious out of conscious awareness.
- Censorship: the process of keeping the consciousness from entering consciousness.
- Pleasure principle: driving force of unconscious that wants whatever brings pleasure.
- Reality principle: the goals of the conscious mind, which finds what works in reality.
Freud's structural model
- Structural model: Freud's model of the mind with 3 parts: Id (it), the ego (I) and the super ego (above I).
- Id: the unconscious mind, motivated for pleasure and wish fulfilment.
- Ego: the conscious part of the mind that navigates between the Id and super ego.
- Super ego: the strict and demanding part of the mind.
When what you really think deep down comes out as a slip of the tongue.
Define libido and cathexis
- Libido: Freud's term for sexual psychic energy
- Cathexis: the attachment of libido to thoughts, objects or parts of the body.
Freud's developmental stages
- Freud's developmental stages: the stages children go through as the libido moves through the body.
- Oral stage: infancy (0-12 months). The attachment of libido to the mouth. Satisfaction from putting things in mouth.
- Anal: toddlers (1-3 years). Attachment of libido to anus. Issue- potty training.
- Phallic: preschool and kindergarten (4-6 years). Attachment of libido to genitals. Issue- oedipal and electra complexes.
- Latent stage: school age (7-11 years). The quieting of the libido from age 6 to puberty. Libido dormant.
- Genital: adolescence (12+). When the child begins adult sexual development in puberty.
- When get stuck in oral phase.
- Oral fixation: having libido attached to the mouth. In an adult or older child, oral fixation might appear in gum chewing, binge eating.
Anal retentive and anal expulsive
- Anal retentive: gaining pleasure from retaining the bowels. Leads to focus on neatness and order. Similar to high conscientiousness and power motivation.
- Anal expulsive: gaining pleasure from releasing bowels. Lead to adults that are sloppy and disorganised, low on conscientiousness.
Oedipus and electra complex
- Oedipus: the male child's love for the mother and wish for the father's death during the phallic stage.
- Eventually resolved by the boy identifying with the father and wants to become a strong male like him and finds a woman like his mother to marry.
- When not resolved, boy becomes overly attached to his mother and can't form healthy relationships with women.
- Electra: the daughter's love for the father and wish for the mother's death.
Criticisms of Freud's developmental stages
- Not scientifically testable
- Role of environment overlooked
- Experiences beyond first 5 years of life affect personality
- Women seen as inferior
- Case study method/data (wealthy european women)
- Few child patients
- Over emphasis on sexual drive
- Pessimistic psychic determinism (no free will?)
- Time consuming, expensive therapy and of questionable efficacy.
Manifest and latent content of dreams
- Manifest content: the outward content of a dream.
- Latent content: the unconscious meaning of a dream.
- According to Freud, dreams cannot be understood from the manifest content, must look at latent content.
Wish fulfilment and day residue
- Wish fulfilment: The unconscious desire to have one's fantasies realised.
- Freud believed that all dreams were wish fulfillments based on unconscious wishes.
- Day residue: experiences from the day incorporated into a dream's manifest content.
Personality and dreams
- People high in neuroticism have more nightmares.
- • People low in neuroticism and high in openness to experience tend to have more dreams about flying.
- • People high in openness to experience see more strange and different people and are more likely to remember their dreams.
- • Highly agreeable people see more people in their dreams.
Freud's term for the treatment if hysteria by talking in therapy sessions
- Defence mechanisms: strategies used to keep unconscious thoughts from the conscious mind.
- Denial: not acknowledging unconscious content.
- Reaction formation: disguising unconscious content by turning it into its opposite. Eg. explicit homophobia with unconscious homosexuality.
- Projection: seeing one's own unconscious content in other rather than oneself. Projecting feelings onto someone else.
- Repression: keeping the unconscious from consciousness by pushing it away. Not aware of impulses.
- ->Repressive coping: not allowing your anxiety to become fully conscious. Deny anxiety but is anxious.
- Displacement: moving a troubling impulse onto a different, less threatening object.eg at pets
- Sublimation: channelling unconscious impulses into work. eg. surgeon.
- Humour: used to release tension between consciousness and unconsciousness.
- Defensive pessimism: thinking negative thoughts to prepare for negative outcomes. (extension from freud)
- Isolation: undesired impulse, thought or act is denied the normal accompanying emotion.
- Rationalisation: Behaviour is reinterpreted so that it appears reasonable and acceptable. Ego constructs rational motive to explain an unacceptable action.
Styles of humour
- Affiliative: humour that makes others laugh and brings people together.
- Self-enhancing: humour used to help someone look and feel better.
- Aggressive: humour used to mock or tease others.
- Self-defeating: humour used to mock oneself.
Evidence to support Freud and criticisms
- Evidence for some defence mechanisms (eg reaction formation, denial, projection. Little for displacement and sublimation).
- Defence mechanisms more likely to protect self esteem rather than against unconscious drives.
- Theories difficult to prove or disprove:
- No empirical testing.
- Not parsimonious (straightforward)
False consensus: overestimate how many people agree with your opinion to feel good about your own opinion
- Neo-analytic theorist who followed Freud and challenged/ expanded on his ideas.
- Emphasis on evolutionary foundations of the human mind.
- Personal unconscious: individual unconscious.
- Collective unconscious: holds cumulative experiences of past generations; is universal.
- -> contains universal images or symbols, or archetypes.
- Archetypes: unconscious psychic structures shared by all people eg. the shadow, the anima/us, the self.
- Archetype: unconscious psychic structures shared by all people.
- Shadow: the archetype of the same sex as the individual. The 'dark side' of the ego. Can also be the opposite of your usual self eg. an introvert when you're usually an extrovert.
- Anima/animus: the soul; the archetype of the opposite sex of the individual. An image of the other sex inside ourselves.
- The self: the archetype at the centre of the collective unconscious.
- ->mandala: a nonhuman image of the self. A squared circle. Represents the union of opposites (square and circle together)
Jung: the ego, its attitudes and its functions
- Jung believed the ego could be divided into different attitudes and ego functions- ways people perceive and engage with the world.
- Myer-Briggs personality types.
- Extraversion vs intro: getting energy from social situations vs being alone, in Jungian theory.
- Thinking vs feeling: the rational functions in Jungian theory. (Logic vs feeling)
- Intuition vs sensation: the irrational functions in Jungian theory. Intuition sees patterns and involves big leaps in logic. Sensation type relies on concrete connections.
- Judging vs Perceiving: functions added to Jung's types by Myers and Briggs; being planful vs more spontaneous.
Process of individuation
- Individuation: Jung's term for the process of psychological development.
- Hero's journey: Joseph campbell's model of individuation in stories, including a descent and a return.
- Synchronicity: an acausal connecting principle in which things go together but are not causally linked.