Chapter 3

  1. Define tissue?
    Groups of specialized cells and cell products performing a limited number of functions.
  2. Name the four primary tissue types?
    • Epilthelia
    • Connective
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
  3. What is the purpose of the Epithelia tissue?
    • Cover exposed surfaces (provide physical protection)
    • Line internal passageways and chambers
    • Produce glandular secretions
    • Control permeability
    • Provide sensation
  4. What is the purpose of Connective tissue?
    • Fill internal spaces
    • Provide structural support
    • Store energy
  5. What is the purpose of Muscle tissue?
    Contracts and provides active movement
  6. What is the purpose of Neural tissue?
    • Conducts electrical impulses
    • Carries information
  7. Define glands?
    Secretory structures derived from epithelia
  8. Name three specializations of Epithelial cells?
    • Microvilli
    • Stereocilia
    • Cilia
  9. Describe 6 characteristics of Epithelial Tissue?
    • Cells are bound tightly together by cell junctions
    • Always has a free (apical) surface
    • Bound to basement membrance (Basal Lamina)
    • Avascular
    • Arranged into sheets and layers (one or more)
    • Regeneration (division of geminative (stem) cells)
  10. What maintains the integrity of the epithelium?
    • Intercellular connections
    • Attachment to basal lamina. (lamina lucida (clear layer), lamina densa (reticular layer)
    • Maintenance and renewal is self perpetuated by germinative cells (stem cells)
  11. Name and describe the two layers of epithelia
    • Simple-only one layer
    • Stratified-more then one layer
  12. Name the different shapes of the epithelia
    • Squamous
    • Cubodial
    • Columnar
  13. Describe the characteristics, and functions of simple squamous ep.?
    • Delicate
    • Secretes serous fluid (protects by reducing friction)
    • Lines internal cavities; blood vessels
    • Gas exchnge
  14. Describe the characteristics of stratified squamous epithelial?
    • Series of flat layers
    • Protects against stress
    • Located where there is wear and tear
    • (skin, mouth, esophagus, rectum, vagina)
  15. Describe the characteristics of simple cubodial epithelial? What it is used for?
    • Forms tubes and ducts
    • Secretion and absorption
  16. Where can Transitional epithelium be found, what is it's function?
    • Only in the urinary tract
    • Allows for stretching of the bladder as it fills
  17. Describe the characteristics of simple columnar epithelium? What is it's function?
    • Lines the digestive tract
    • Absorption and secretion
  18. What are the two modifications to the simple columnar epithelium that aid in absorption and secretion?
    • Dense microvilli
    • Goblet cells
  19. Where is simple columnar epithelium found?
    Lining of the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterine tubes, and collecting ducts of the kidneys
  20. Where can psuedostratifed columnar epithelium be found?
    Lining of the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi; portions of the male reproductive tract
  21. Describe exocrine glands? What are some of it's secretions?
    • •Secretes into a duct or onto their apical surface (e.g.
    • skin)
    • •Secretion e.g. mucus, sweat,
    • oil, saliva, liver bile, digestive/pancreatic enzymes, milk, perspiration
  22. Describe endocrine glands?
    • •Secrete hormones
    • •Ductless
  23. Name some characteristics of connective tissue?
    • Found throughout the body – never exposed to outside
    • environment
    • Great diversity of function &
    • appearance - bone, fat, blood
    • Connective tissue mostly matrix
  24. All connective tissues have what three main components?
    • 1.Special cells
    • 2.Extracellular protein fibers
    • 3.Ground substance
  25. Define Matrix as it relates to connective tissue?
    • Term for the extracellular component of any
    • connective tissue that is made up of the protein fibers and the ground substance.
  26. Name six functions of connective tissue?
    • 1.Establishing the structural framework of the body.
    • 2.Transporting fluid and dissolved materials.
    • 3.Protecting organs
    • 4.Supporting, surrounding, and connecting other tissues.
    • 5.Storing energy.
    • 6.Defending the body from microorganisms.
  27. Name the fixed cells?
    • Fibroblasts
    • Fibrocytes
    • Mixed macrophages
    • Adipocytes
    • Mesenchymal cells
    • Melanocytes
  28. Name the wandering cells?
    • Free macrophages
    • Mast cells
    • Lymphocytes
    • Neutrophils
    • eosinophils
  29. Name the fibers of connective tissue proper?
    • Collagen fibers
    • Recticular fibers
    • Elastic fibers
  30. Describe the look, characteristic and function of collagen fibers?
    • long, straight, unbranched
    • Strongest; most common fibers
    • Cylindrical fibers made up of three subunits coiled around one another.
  31. What do recticular fibers look like? What's their characteristic?
    • A single unit of collagen proteins
    • Thin; branched framework
    • Tough but flexible
  32. What is the characteristic and look of Elastic fibers?
    • Contain the protein elastin
    • Branching & wavy
    • Stretch & recoil
  33. What type of tissue is Areolar? Where is it found?
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Within and deep to the dermis of skin,
    • and covered by epithelial lining of the digestive, respiratory tract
    • and urinary tract; between muscle; between muscles;
    • around blood vessels, nerves, and around joints
  34. Where is the location and what is the function of Adipose tissue?
    • Deep to the skin, especially at the sides,
    • Buttock, breast; padding around eyes and kidneys
    • Provides cushion and padding, shocks,
    • Insulates (reduces heat loss) stores energy
  35. What is the location and function of reticular tissue?
    • Liver, kidney,spleen, lymph nodes
    • And bone marrow
    • Provides supporting framework
  36. What is the characteristic of dense regular connective tissue? What is made of dense connective tissue?
    • Straight, parelle
    • Tendons (collagen fiber, connects bone-muscle)
    • Aponeuroses
    • Elastic tissue (vertibrae-vertibrae)
    • Ligaments (collagen fiber, bone-bone)
  37. Describe dense connective tissue? What is made of dense irregular tissue?
    • Coming from all directions
    • Dermis
    • Covers bones and cartilage
    • Capsules of organs
  38. Describe the function of dense regular connective tissue?
    • Provides firm attachment; conducts
    • pull of muscles; reduces friction
    • between muscles; stabilizes relative
    • positions of bones
  39. Where is the location of dense irregular connective tissue?
    • Capsules of visceral organs;
    • Periostea and perichondria;
    • Nerve and muscle sheaths; dermis
  40. What is the function of dense irregular connective tissue?
    • Provides strength to resist forces
    • Applied from many directions; helps
    • Prevent overexpansion of organs such
    • As the urinary bladder
  41. Name the two fluid connective tissues?
    • Blood: has a matrix called plasma
    • Various types of formed elements
    • Lymph: forms as interstitial fluid (around the cell)
    • 99% of cells are lymphocytes
  42. Name the characteristics specific to supporting connective tissues? What are those tissues?
    • Contain few cells, high amounts of fiber, and
    • A ground substance that may contain insoluble calcium salts
    • Cartilage: Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrous
    • Bone
  43. What is the location of hyaline cartilage?
    • Between tips of ribs and bones of
    • Sternum; covering bone surfaces;
    • At synovial joints; supporting larynx
    • Trachea, and bronchi; forming part of the septum
  44. What is the function of hyaline cartliage?
    • Provides stiff but somewhat
    • Flexible support; reduces
    • Friction between bony surfaces
  45. Where are the locations of elastic cartilage?
    • Auricle of external ear
    • Epiglottis; auditory canal
    • Cuneiform cartilages of larynx
  46. What is the function of elastic cartilage?
    • Provides support, but tolerates
    • Distortion without damage
    • And returns to original shape
  47. Where are the locations of fibrous cartilage?
    • Pads within knee joint;
    • Between pubic bones of pelvis
    • Intervertebral discs
  48. What is the function of fibrous cartilage?
    • Resists compression; prevents
    • Bone to bone contact; limits relative
    • Movement
  49. Where are mucous membranes located?
    • Nasal cavity
    • Mouth
    • Esophagus lining
    • Lung bronchi
    • Urinary system
  50. What are the characteristics of mucous membranes? What is it used in?
    • Surface epithelium moist, forms barrier
    • Underlying loose connective tissue (lamina propria)
    • Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior
    • Often adapted for absorption or secretion
    • Most secret mucus
  51. What are the serous membranes?
    • Parietal peritoneum
    • Visceral peritoneum
  52. Describe the characteristics of the serous memebranes?
    • Thin, transparent-simple squamous epithelium
    • Attached to body wall and organs they cover
  53. What is the function of the serous memebranes?
    • Minimize friction
    • Lines open body cavities that are closed
    • To the exterior or the body
    • Serous layers seperated by serous fluid
  54. Where is the cutaneous membrane? Describe it's characteristic? What is the function?
    • Skin
    • Outermost protective boundary
    • Keratinized (water resistent)
  55. Where is the synovial membranes located? What is the function?
    • Line joint cavity
    • Synovial fluid
    • Lubricates cartilages, cushions shocks, distributes
    • Oxygen and nutrients
  56. Describe the from outermost to innermost the levels of mucous membranes?
    • Surface of skin, mucous secretion
    • Epithelium
    • Lamina propria (areolar tissue)
  57. Describe from outermost to innermost the levels within serous membranes?
    • Transudate
    • Mesothelium
    • Areolar tissue
  58. Describe the layers of cutaneous membranes?
    • Epithelium
    • Areolar tissue
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
  59. Name the three types of muscle cells?
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  60. Name the two types of neural tissues?
    • Neurons
    • Neuroglia
  61. What are the characteristics of muscle tissue?
    • Cells are long, cylindrical
    • Straited, and multinucleate
  62. What is the characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue?
    • Cells are short, branched, and straited
    • Usually with a single nucleus; cells
    • Are interconnected by intercalated discs
  63. What are the characteristics of smooth muscle tissue?
    • Cells are short, spindle-shaped, and
    • Nonstraited, with a single, central nucleus
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Chapter 3