Midterm 1

  1. What is the central dogma of DNA?
    DNA replication -> DNA transcription -> RNA translation -> Protiens. INformation flows from DBA to Protiens
  2. What is the flow of genetic information?
    DNA -> Transcription (RNA Synthesis) -> Messenger RNA -> Translation (protein synthesis) -> Protein
  3. These are the subunits of the nucleic acids.
  4. Nucleotides are made up of?
    A Phosphate, base, and sugar.
  5. What are the purines?
    Adenine and Guanine
  6. What are the Pyrimidines?
    Cystosine, Thymine, and Uracil.
  7. Know what the pyrmidine and purine look like.
  8. What are the base pairings.
    A-T C-G in DNA and A-U C-G in RNA
  9. What kind of bond bonds nucleotides together?
    Hydrogen bonds
  10. How many hydrogen bonds are between A-T?
  11. How many hydrogen bonds are betweem C-G?
  12. What is the backbone of the DNA strand?
    A sugar phosphate. round part the phosphate and the rectagled is the sugar.
  13. Histones fold up the DNA into
  14. When the gene is off it looks?
    tightly wound up
  15. When the gene is on it looks?
    Looped. a wide open loop ready for binding.
  16. How does the DNA fold up?
    DNA goes into beads on a string forming chromatin -> chromatin fibers pack together -> Chromatin fibers folded in to loops-> then packed into chromosome
  17. A nucleotide is?
    N-containing base, a 5 carbon sugar and one or more phosphate groups.
  18. DNA breaks apart creating a replication fork, what are the two strands?
    A leading strand and a lagging strand.
  19. DNA grows from?
  20. What are the proteins that are involved with the unraveling of DNA?
    Helicase, Single Stranded Biding Proteins, Topoisomers, Gyrase, RNA Primase, and DNA Polymerase.
  21. What does Helicase do?
    Its and enzyme that breaks the hydrogen bonds between the DNA.
  22. What does Single Stranded Binding proteins do?
    Holds the DNA open after it has been split.
  23. What does the topoisomers do?
    They help keep the DNA strand from kinking up while its being unravled.
  24. What does the Gyrase do?
    This unravels the DNA strand
  25. What does the RNA Primase do?
    This creats a strating point on the DNA template for DNA Polymerase to attach to.
  26. What does DNA POlymerase do?
    This creates the new DNA starnd. Builds the new DNA structure.
  27. What are the DNA fragments called on the Lagging strand?
    Okazaki fragments.
  28. New Nucleic acids are added by dNTPs to teh 3'OH end
  29. What proof reads the lagging strand and kicks out the RNA primers off?
    DNA Polymerase I
  30. What does DNA Ligase go?
    This binds DNA together. Such as the segements in the lagging strand.
  31. How fast is replication?
    Polymerase can add 100 nucleotides per second.
  32. How many nucleotides are there in a human?
  33. How often do mutations occur?
    1 in every 10^7
  34. Why dont we see these errors?
    Silent mutations, Some corrected, repaired by enzymes.
  35. What does DNA polymerase I do?
    DNA repair and removing primers (Prokaryotic) It has exonuclease properties
  36. What does Polymerase II do?
    DNA proof-reading and repair (Prokaryotic)
  37. What dies DNA polymerase III do?
    replication elongation.
  38. What cuts the DNA after Gyrase has uynraveled?
    An Endonuclease.
  39. What are tthe characteristics of living things?
    Movement, growth and development, responce to stimuli, reproduction, use of energy, and cellular structure.
  40. What are the universal features of the cell?
    Contain hereditary information, transfer of genetic material, contain protien manufactureing, require energy, have enclosed membranse.
  41. What does prokaryote mean?
    Before nucleus (bacteria)
  42. What does Eukaryote mean?
    Ture nucleus (animal and plant cells)
  43. Origins of eukaryotes?
    an Ameba tae a bacteria. Bacteria became the mitchondria. For plants it may have been a photosynthetic bacteria.
  44. How many bonds does a carbon have?
    4 covalent bonds
  45. What are the three types of bonds?
    Hydrogen bond, ionic bonds, and covalent bonds
  46. Name some monomers (in order)?
    Sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides.
  47. Name some polymers (macromolecules in order)
    Polysaccharides, fats/lipids/membranes, proteins, and nucleic acids.
  48. Sugars are brought together with what kind of reaction? (water is removed)
    Condensation reaction
  49. Sugars are seperated by what kind of reaction?(water is added)
  50. Simple sugars with multiple OH groups. Based on number of carbons they are named/
  51. 2 monosaccharides covalently linked
  52. A few (3-15) monosaccharides covalently linked.
  53. Polymers consisting of long chains of monosaccharide or disaccharide units.
  54. These monosaccharides have an aldehyde group at one end
  55. These monosaccharides have a keto group usually at the C2/
  56. Name some unbranched polymers of glucose?
    Amylose and cellulose (both plants)
  57. Name some branched polymers of glucose?
    Glycogen ( animals) and Amylopectin (plants)
  58. A staight fatty acid is called
  59. A bent fatty acid is called?
  60. Contain a polar region and a non-polar region.
  61. What is a common Phospholipid?
    Phosphotidylethanolamine (PE)
  62. Know the structures of the lipids.
    put pictures in.
  63. These have a rigid ring system, largely hydrophobic, part on an animal cell membrane and precursor for the synthesis of steroid hormones.
  64. N-containg base and a 5-carbon sugar.
  65. N-containg base, a 5- carbon sugar and one ormore phosphate groups.
  66. Know the baic model of an amino acid
  67. What are the parts of the amino acid?
    Has an amino group, carbon atom, a carboxyl group, and R side-chain group.
  68. What bonds the two amino acids together?
    Peptide bonds
  69. How are proteins grouped?
    Acidic, basic, uncharged polar, and nonpolar/
  70. How many amino acids are there?
  71. Name the structures of the protein?
    Primary structure, secondary structure, terciary structure, and qurterary structure.
  72. Primary structure is?
    The amino acid sequence. Polypeptide back bone.
  73. What dictates the shape?
    Amino acid sequence
  74. Secondary structure?
    Alpha helix, coiled, and Beta pleated sheets,
  75. How can pleated sheets be arranged?
    Antiparallel and parallel
  76. Tertiary structure?
    Interactions between R-groups. folded up m=and turned into domains.
  77. Quarterary structure?
    grouped into its main structure. Can by by themselves or grouped together.
  78. How do proteins function?
    They function by interacting with other molecules.
  79. Catalyzes a specific reaction.
  80. Recognizes specific signal/
  81. this is the structure made of protein.
  82. Allows specific molecules to cross membrane.
    Membrane transporters
  83. These bind to the receptors
  84. Bind to a specific bacteria or virus
  85. Bind to specific receptors or enzymes to block action
  86. Bind to specific receptors
  87. This kind of enzyme inhibition plugs the receptor.
  88. This kind of inhibition plug a diffent receptor and causes the min receptor to change shape
    non-competitive inhibition
  89. On the michaelis-Menen kinetics graph what is happening when Vmax stays the same and Km changes?
    Competitive inhibition
  90. On the Michaelis-Mene kinetics graph what is happening when Vmax decreases and Km remains the same?
    Non-competitive inhibition
  91. What is allosteric regulation?
    There is a secondary receptor site (alloteric site) that will uptake a signal. this will then activate or inhibit the active site.
  92. What do mRNAs do?
    they code for proteins
  93. These form the basic structure of the ribosome and catalyze protein synthesis.
  94. Central to protein synthesis as adaptors between mRNA amd amino acids
  95. Function is a variety of nuclear processes including the splicing of pre-mRNA
  96. Eukaryotic genes have what two kinds of coding regions?
    Exons and Introns
  97. mRNA processing.
    5' cap, 3'poly-A tail and Splicing.
  98. RNA polymerase makes how many errors?
    1 out of 10^5 base additions.
  99. is there an error correction for RNA errors?
  100. what is the path to creating a protein in a eukaryote?
    DNA->Transcription -> tRNA -> caping, tail, splicing (removal of introns)->mRNA export->Translation-> protein.
  101. What is the path to creating a protein in a prokaryote?
  102. What are the components of Ribosomes?
    Large subunit and small subunit.
  103. What is the Ribosome made of?
    ~82 protein + 4RNA molecules.
  104. THe large subunit is made of?
    Lots of proteins and 3 RNA molecules
  105. the small subunit is made of?
    fewer proteins and 1 RNA molecule
  106. What do transfer RNAs do?
    They bring in amino acids into ribosomes
Card Set
Midterm 1
Bio 300