Comparative Politics Midterm Ket Terms

  1. comparative politics
    the systematic search for answers to political questions about how people around the world make and contest authoritative choices
  2. Method of Agreement
    Compares and contrasts cases with different attributes but shared outcomes, seeking the one attribute these cases share in common to attribute causality
  3. method of difference
    Compares and contrasts cases with the same attributes but different outcomes, and determines causality by finding an attribute that is present when an outcome occurs but that is absent in similar cases when the outcome does not occur
  4. correlation
    a measure of observed association between two variables
  5. Causation
    A process or even that produces an observable effect
  6. state
    a political-legal unit with sovereignty over a particular geographic territory and population that resides in that territory
  7. sovereignty
    ultimate responsibility for and legal authority over the conduct of internal affairs, including a claim to a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force--within territory defined by geographic borders
  8. state-building
    constructivism and primordialism --> the act of creating a national identity that encourages legitimacy and scope
  9. neo-patrimonialism
    a system of social hierarchy where patrons use state resources in order to secure the loyalty of clients in the general population. It is an informal patron–client relationship that can reach from very high up in state structures down to individuals in small villages.
  10. bureaucratic-rational state.
    A set of checks and balances that keeps the state in order and allows the state to build without being at risk of having everything destroyed by an irrational leader
  11. State Building
    Strengthening the legitimacy of state institutions 

    weak states are susceptible to authoritarianism and difficult to create democracy → neopatrimonialism doesn’t NECESSARILY imply authoritarianism, but usually is
  12. fragile state
    • states with less rule of law, lower in autonomy
    • Lack of:Rule of law, Effectiveness, Autonomy, Legitimacy
    • problematic states that emerge and continue to be an issue to this day in Africa
    • Measured through fragile state index
    • Examples: South Sudan, Somalia, Central African Republic
  13. phantom state
    A state that potentially has it's own government system, currency, military, language, religion that is not internationally recognized as a state (Somaliland, Kurdistan)
  14. collective action
    citizens working together to create political change (protests)
  15. social movement
    organized, sustained, and collective efforts that make claims on behalf of members of a group; challenge the power of government authorities or other groups in civil society' contest the legitimacy of established ideas or practices' or advance new ideas or practices
  16. civil society (CSI and CSII)
    Collectively organized groups that are independent of the state → realm of actors, individuals, and groups that are not part of the state itself but work together → these groups have goals/purposes (widely varying goals)

    CSI: A-political → focuses on voluntary associations (non-profits, charities, and community groups), excludes political groups

    CSII: All of society outside of the state → not just charities and nonprofits, but all kinds of groups outside of the state → political parties and businesses could fit inside this group
  17. Social Capital
    generalized trust → you trust the world around you (do you assume the person you see on the street will mug you or smile and say hello)
  18. Nation
    a cultural grouping of individuals who associate with each other based on collectively held political identity
  19. Nationalism
    a subjective feeling of membership in a nation
  20. Civic Nationalism
    based on shared political values
  21. Ethnic nationalism
    Nationalism based off a belief that one ethnicity is better than others
  22. Nation State
    a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent
  23. Ethnfederalism
    a federal system of national government in which the federated units are defined according to ethnicity
  24. Consociation
    Power-sharing (consociation) → India is an example of where federalism has helped manage the tremendous diversity of the country
  25. Democracy
    a political system in which the ruers are accountable for the ruled
  26. Democratization
    a shift from a non-democratic to a democratic regime
  27. Civic Culture
    a key aspect of a country's cultural identity defined by three characteristics: high civic engagement, political equality, and solidarity
  28. Modernization theory
    suggests that democracy is not simply a function of economic growth, but rather that it is a function of the cultural changes that accompany economic growth
  29. Parliamentary System
    a constitutional format in which the executive and legislative branches have neither separation of origin nor separation of survival
  30. Separation of origin
    Separation of origin:Voters directly elect the members of the legislature and also cast a separate ballot directly electing the chief executive and president
  31. Separation of Survival:
    Members of both the executive and legislative branches serve for fixed terms of office
  32. presidentialism
    A constitutional format in which the executive and legislative branches enjoy both separation of origin and survival
  33. semi-presidentialism hybrid
    a constitutional format in which the president and parliament enjoy separation of origin, but only the president enjoys separation of survival
  34. political parties
    a group of people who have organized to attain and hold political power
  35. single-member district
    the candidate with the most votes in a certain area wins) → candidate does not have to have the majority, just whoever has the most relatively ⇒ winner takes all approach
  36. proportional representation
    an electoral system that distributes seats proportionally to the vote each party receives
  37. authoritarianism
    limited (no) political pluralism (lack of competitiveness in the political process), leaders in power are not constitutionally responsible to the public (once you are in power, they can stay in power, there is no mechanism/weak mechanism to get them out in the event that the public would like them out) and limits on individual freedom (necessary to keep on in power is to ensure that contenders can’t voice their opposition ie lack of press, lack of freedom of religion) → small group of power that you can’t easily get rid of
  38. totalitarianism
    a type of non-democratic government that attempts to shape the interests and identities of its citizens through the use of ideology, coercive mobilization, and severe repression
  39. competitive authoritarianism
    • lies in the middle of totalitarianism and democracy -->
    • internal pressures: governments hold elections, although there is very little chance that the other party will win, still there is a risk that they will not hold onto that power 
    • Internal/Domestic Legitimacy: "I won the election so you have to follow me" 
    • Mass Public: hate on the media and extend suffrage to the people so they feel like they have a say
  40. military regimes
    a non-democratic regime in which the selectorate is typically limited to the highest ranks of the military officer corps
  41. single-party regime
    in which a single political party dominates all government institutions and restricts political competition to maintain itself in power
  42. resource curse
    hypothesizes that any country whose economic growth relies on one valuable natural resource is unlikely to result in an equitable distribution of wealth, which, in turn, generates problematic political consequences
  43. Left-Wing Populism
    anti-elitist, for the people: (about Latin American populist ideas of doing more for the people, need more state intervention in the economy, need to protect workers)  examples in Greece, Spain, and Italy
  44. Populism
    a thin-centered ideology which advocates the sovereign rule of the people as a homogenous body -- sees itself as a representation of the people, anti-elitist
  45. Neo-liberal populism
    a form of populism that seeks to limit the government's role in order to get a freer economy
  46. Right-Wing Populism
    Welfare chauvinism --> welfare state is becoming in part debates about immigration/diversity in a lot of societies → this has significant consequences
  47. Public Goods
    goods that everyone can consume, whether or not they helped produce them (clean air, clean water)
  48. Inclusive Institutions
    does not refer to a clearly defined field of theory or policy within international development, but to a normative sensibility that stands in favour of inclusion as the benchmark against which institutions can be judged and also promoted
  49. State lead develoment
    a strategy to promote economic growth that includes such policies as government coordination of private sector investment, forced savings, and preferential treatment to certain industries regarded as essential for national economic development
  50. Import Substitution Industrialization
    Putting high tariffs on imports from other countries to try to boost the economy your country, the problem with this is that it helps in the short run, but in the long run states fall behind in the international economy which has negative consequences
  51. Economic Liberalism
    market driven model, free market capitalism: Advocates private ownership means of production (things like land, machinery, etc)
  52. Communism (state socialism)
    holds that under capitalist economic systems, the wealthy exploit the workers and the poor. Communists believe that efforts should be made to redistribute economic wealth as much as possible, and that a single political party should direct the government and control of the state
  53. State-led development
    using the state (state power and resources) to promote economic development → statism
  54. Social democracy
    a political ideology practiced widely across contemporary European states that tries to balance capitalist markets and private property with some degree of state intervention in the economy to ameliorate (make better) problems of economic inequality
  55. Welfare state
    the term used to describe the role states play in protecting the economic and social well-being of all its citizens through redistributive taxing and spending programs
Card Set
Comparative Politics Midterm Ket Terms
Key Terms from Powerpoint