PSC 1001 Midterm Readings

  1. Fukuyama, “The Imperative of State-Building.”
    makes distinction in how they vary in scope (how much they try to do)  and how strong they areScope: how big is the state? How much does it try to do? States are measured by tax economy and spending, the Swedish state makes up a quarter of the economy, Sweden is a huge state that does a lot → the national government is considered a smaller scope because they do less through direct government spending

    “what we may be witnessing is not just the end of th Cold War, or the passing of particular period of post war history, but the end of history as such: that is, the endpoint of mankind’s ideological evolution [toward democracy]” FukuyamaIf there is not an actual reverse wave, there certainly is a leveling off in the trade → Freedom house measured that there is an up and down to the trends of how many democracies exist in the world → even though they are free, the quality of freedom may decline There are fluctuations, but after 2014 there was a jump in countries that have dropped scores → they may still be in the categories but their levels of freedom have declined in
  2. “War and the State in Africa” Jeffrey Herbst
    African countries are somewhat weaker because they came about with peace and not war --> colonialism screwed them up

    Foreign wars help build nations (like in Europe in the 1600s) but Africa is not dealing with foreign wars (not facing foreign threats → weak countries are not a threat, they do not have the ability to wage war against each other and got their independence through peace), but with civil wars ⇒ foreign wars force governments to unite and create new innovative ways to fight foreign enemies

    • P. 117: Samuel P. Huntington: war created states in EuropeP.
    • 117: Charles P. Tilly: war created the stateThe Effects of War on State Consolidation: the European Case
    • War caused weak states to disappear into stronger states, this has not happened with weak states in Africa War affected Europe in 2 ways: creating a centralized structures to collect taxes and built nationalism ⇒ peace in Africa has made it so people do not feel a need for these things → people do not want to pay taxes because they do not feel like they are being helped by them (like Europeans did when their governments were protecting them) and nationalism derives from the idea that your state is more important than another, you do not need this in times of peace
    • P. 119: Richard Bean → states have power when they can tax their people and get revenue quickly → states that could not raise revenue quickly perished
    • P. 119: Michael Mann: if states wanted to remain a state, they would pay their taxes to pay for strong professional militaries → also caused political leaders to be innovative about new ways to get revenue & people must be frightened by threat of survival into paying their taxes
    • P. 121: Joseph Smaldone on Sokoto Caliphate (modern day Nigeria in 1500 to 1800) → was puts people in motion (through fear) and that puts governments in motion
    • P. 121: South Korea and Taiwan have been able to extract many of their resources through fear of threat from neighboring countries
  3. "The Mystery of Phantom States" Byman and King
    There are states in the world like Kurdistan, Somaliland, and Taiwan that have their own governments with their own militaries, currency, elections, visas, etc. who are not acknowledged in the international sphere. This is dangerous because it does not allow them access to important regimes and protections: Somaliland cannot get aid through the World Bank without going through Somalia which is denied because it is unstable. Countries don't want to give them sovereignty because they worry that the other countries will be worse off for it.
  4. "Why Afghanistan's War Defies Solutions"
    • Challenges of Statebuilding in Afghanistan: no end in sight because the goals US wants to achieve contradicts each other → want to support peace, but there is a struggle for control and at the same time they are trying to promote a central state and state-building (an effective state that meets the needs of the population) and has monopoly of legitimate force in the state → the conflict between these two goals because following collapse of state, much like what happened in Somalia, what happened is that warlords control various regions and they are not about to give up control and there is an effort to build a central state with control over the territory and it clashes with what the regional warlords want themselves → how much do you cozy up with these warlords to restore peace and stability → this goes against the idea of building up the central state
    • Can be considered a failed state
    • Geographic terrain makes it difficult to instill laws especially because it gives advantages to the guerrilla warfare
  5. "Bowling Alone" Putnam
    • Trends over the last 25 years: people are joining less organizations, people like each other less, people are not as involved →
    • social capital is in decline in the US, generalized trust is in decline in the US → this threatens the power of our democracy Attending club meetings, Family dinners, Having friends over
    • Decline in trust in government: in the 50’s and 60’s → more than 80% had trust in government → → trust in government is currently at 20%
    • Debates about Putnam:This characterization of the US shifts: people are involved in different ways now
    • Putnam’s Vision of society is an a-political sphere, only clubs and neighborhood watch groups
    • Civil society can be subversive → it can also work against the status quo and regimes
    • Civil Society II: much broader and encompases a broader array of organizations →
    • a useful way to think about this is to consider the writings of: Antonio Gramsci (1891 to 1937): Italian Marxist who died in prison “Prison Notebooks” CS: Society outside of the state → all types of organization and associations
    • Key source of political power but also as resistance:Ruling classes (in Marxist perspective) controlled all aspects of the state (controlling the media, charitable organizations, culture producing entities) → permeating civil society with their values
    • Hard to contest those with formal political power if they shape the way you think (the way the media produces issues) this creates a hegemony that operates through civil society
    • Some may want to combat hegemony → try to subvert society and take control of organizations and put their own values and delegitimize those who have political power
  6. "The Paradox of Civil Society" Foley and Edwards
    • The “civil society argument” as Michael Walzer calls it, is actually a complex set of arguments, not all which are congruent
    • Response to Bowling Alone by Putnam and de Toqueville
    • Civil Society I: just non-profits and charities and not anything political
    • Civil Society II: All of society outside of the state → not just charities and nonprofits, but all kinds of groups outside of the state → political parties and businesses could fit inside this group
    • Social Capital & Public Goods
    • key to the success or failure of democratic institutions will lie not in the character of civil society but in their responsiveness as institutions--in their ability to mediate conflict by hearing, channeling, and mediating the multiple citizen demands that modern societies express through civil and political associations alike.
  7. "The Political Regulation of National and Ethnic Conflict" McGarry and O'Leary
    • discuss consequences of nationalism and conflict for political stability and the options for mediating these conflicts → ways in which federalism can be used to mediate conflict → Rohingya doesn’t have it’s own state → suggest devolving power
    • Suggest: Power-sharing (consociation) → India is an example of where federalism has helped manage the tremendous diversity of the country
  8. "The End of the Postnational Illusion" Nodia
    • There was a thought after WWII that nationalism was in decline, but this is not true, as has been expressed in the election of Trump. 
    • With Brexit and the election of Donald Trump, nationalism is back in the spotlight and needs to be reassessed by political and social scientists, but they believe it to be a passing notion that withers when a confrontational situation is over and continues to believe it will lessen more with time, and therefore is not worth analyzing. → We believed postnationalism to be a prediction for the future, but we must now reconsider if this is true
  9. "Europe After Brexit" Matthijs
    • Brexit will hurt the EU as Britain has a powerful military -- combined militaries made world safer (European countries fought in other's militaries)
    • Economic downfalls: 40% of Britain's exports are to the EU
    • Many EU countries are still in debt
    • Difficult for people (German hairdresser can work in France)
    • Occurred due to globalization
    • Poor immigrants (from Eastern Europe and Middle Eastern refugees) came to richer countries and the governments weren't prepared for the influx of people
  10. "Is Democracy a Universal Value?" Sen
    • (Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen): normative argument that democracy is something that everybody wants, and it is only a matter of time before we all get there →
    • is this a universal value →
    • System of government that maximizes human freedom
    • Instrumental value of democracy → it is the best way for people to express their needs and have those needs heard → state functions better when the state knows what people's’ needs are
    • Dialogue, learning: democracy is a mode of interaction where people come up with values and discuss what their needs and values are, what their goals are → these types of interactions are ones that everyone values
    • All cultures compatible with democracy: pushing back against the debate that you need a certain type of culture to be a democracy → Sen says no, there are basic things that people want, and it doesn’t matter what culture you have to want these basic needs
  11. "How Development Leads to Democracy" Ingelhart and Welzel
    • Proponents for Modernization Theory
    • Agrarian: traditional values, obedience, religiosity → not a questioning culture that would bring about democracy
    • Industrial: Individualism, material concerns → leads to economic growth → larger material concerns (could show a want for more power in the democratic process)
    • Post-Industrial: self expression and autonomy → service economy with highly educated population → need to have a say about one’s own lives → this stage is one that is most conducive to democracy One of the observations people have made is democracies have been initiated at any level of development → people may always want more freedom and autonomy → but democracy does not alway stick → it can begin and then fall apart → not that you don’t want democracy, you just didn't’ get it → maybe richer economies are easier to push democracy forward where in poorer nations it is more of a self-help system
    • Plateau: maybe economic growth is a stabilizer of regimes, and doesn’t actually bring democracy (there are nations that get richer but do not get more democratic) → as long as people see themselves doing better they may be happy with whatever regimes are in place
  12. "The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism" Levitsky and Way
    • Prospects for Authoritarianism in the USA → the US is backsliding into a more authoritarian government → the road to democracy goes multiple ways ⇒ democracy is more immune to losing its democracy
    • the point in having competitive authoritarianism is that it lies in the middle of democracy and totalitarianism → it is hard to argue that many nations are democratic or not-democratic ⇒ role of institutions fit in the existence of democracy but do not run as democracies → (in practice they do not function like this ie: fixed elections) → ruling elites put their friends in office and persecute their political opponents → actually exist through their formal institutions ⇒ why is it still competitive? Because the regime still has to make an effort to be elected and maintain a system (huge amounts of resources that go into predetermined elections) → requirement to remain legitimate (function does not reflect their purpose) ⇒ still a chance that there could be a different outcome that they’d like (linked with democracy)
  13. Guriev and Triesman "The New Dictators Rule by Velvet Fist"
    • cost of violence → critical of the Western nations for working with these nations that do not consider human rights → coercing their citizens and getting away
    • Use soft methods (propaganda, censorship, and information based manipulation) rather than "strongman" methods of violence (mock western culture) --> people oppose violence, so new dictatorships will separate themselves from it (and do it other ways)
  14. Mickey, Levitsky, and Way: "Is America Still Safe For Democracy?"
    • President Trump elected using authoritarian values:
    • Claiming he would throw opposition (Hillary) in jail
    • Don't trust the news
    • Rhetoric (blaming problems on outsiders)
    • Prospects for Authoritarianism in the USA → the US is backsliding into a more authoritarian government → the road to democracy goes multiple ways ⇒ democracy is more immune to losing its democracy
  15. Diamond and Mosbacher "Petroleum to the People"
    • developing countries that have resources is more of a curse is given to elites and not to the people → solutions that can be done → oil to cash is not distributed as taxable income → keeps people more accountable  → less hypothetical and more examples of what goes on (Botswana → oil to cash system, paying taxes that go back to the people) → not transparent (try to aggrandize it, to get the article published they have to say something dramatic) ⇒ more oil is being produced out of Africa and it leads to more corruption even though they are richer → accountability (no tax revenue) ⇒ main conclusion: distribute the revenue to the citizens is the only way to make it better [don’t follow the example of Qatar, because they just give handouts like Turkmenistan and free gas, doesn’t really solve the problem]
    • situation about African continent as a whole, exploitation of oil resources people didn’t know where there, exploitation of oil and natural gas, and thoughts that it will be important for authoritarianism → read the arguments carefully, organizing the logic
  16. "Egypt's wide state reassembles itself" Brown
    Ties in with Documentary → Deep state → military has a huge amount of power, despite the institutions that don’t get along well there are covert secret services/military figures that call the shots ⇒ argument of whether or not this is a good thing
  17. Mudde, "Europe's Populist Surge"
    • one can find populism in or originating from authoritarian systems → challenge authoritarian leaders claiming they do not protect the interests of the people
    • Frustrations with the democratic process → some democratic institutions vary in their effectiveness and ability to decision making ⇒ when someone comes in and says they will cut through the crap to make things happen, they gain the vote
    • Against Elite Power → there are no direct democracies, it is delegated to a small number of people who gain more of the power in a democratic system watching the accumulation of power is very frustrating for the people (“vested interests/swamp/looking out for itself)
    • Closed-door policy-making → people are not involved with politics, mostly happening in secret ⇒ democracies are vulnerable to these populist critiques
    • European Example: Mudde → taking advantage of people's fears, talks about how there is a powerful perception in a lot of European countries (like immigration policy and European integration) is something that has happened behind closed doors, elites don’t want to have these conversations with the people, they make decision without asking the public → one of the things he’s critical of is the claim that political leaders are made and there is no alternative politics → we need immigrants for their workforce → he claims that this lack of choice brings right-wing political parties to do things in secret
  18. O'Neil, "Latin America's Populist Hangover"
    Latin America was very supportive of populist movements in the 19th century (Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil) although they are now much more hesitant due to significant amounts of turbulence in the internationals sphere in the last hundred years
  19. Chen, “Tough Guy: When a Populist Demagogue Takes Power.”
    • Duterte, President of the Phillipenes, uses "tough guy" techniques to control the country through fear
    • Swears openly and threatens other international leaders (called President Obama "son of a whore")
    • Openly discusses killing drug dealers in his speeches, thousands of people have been killed
    • High ratings, although there is discussion of if this is truly legitimate
  20. Acemoglu and Robinson "The Making of Prosperity and Poverty"
    • Dispersion of power, rather than a concentration of it
    • In a more pluralist/democratic system where people are voting for themselves, it improves public good provision → see a connection there
    • Result is a higher level of economic development inclusion → move from inclusive institutions to thinking about pluralism and democracy in general are conducive to economic development
    • Samuels: counter-argument -->discusses that the relationship is not so tightly, may work in some parts of the world but correlation does not equal causation


    • Asian later industrializers:Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan
    • Had well functioning states, bureaucratic-rational states → thinking about Acemoglu, they started with states with a meritocratic governments and tried to enrich their people and not just themselves
    • Autonomous, merit-based bureaucracy
    • Effective state intervention → state bureaucrats thought of their jobs as how to make the country better as a whole, not just for themselves
    • Democracies: they were not
    • Japan had a one party system, South Korea and Taiwan were not democracies until the late 1989s
    • States or Regimes → countries not rapidly growing under context of democracy  ⇒ because the US relationship with these countries encouraged trade → growth model they adopted after WWII, and the US tried to foster development
  21. Sachs, “Government, Geography and Growth.”
    • Geography (Sachs) (response to Acemoglu and Robinson) → geography determines a lot about economic development ⇒
    • poor resource base makes it difficult to develop economically Location, lack of navigable rivers (mountain/desert countries are difficult)Climate/Disease → countries with high numbers of mosquitos historically and malaria are difficult to develop because many people are always sick → including potential colonizers who did not want to live there because everyone was sick
    • Geography is destiny?: can savy investors and good leaders help this? Not everyone is convinced of Sach’s ideas
  22. Radelet, “The Rise of the World’s Poorest Economies.”
    • Rising level of development
    • Correlates with democratization
    • Saying this happens in the third wave of democratization → he sees a relationship → keeping in mind correlation does not equal causation →
    • 1. Enormous decline in global poverty
    • 2. There have been huge developments in health
    • 3. Far more children, especially girls, are receiving formal education.
    • 4. Incomes are growing steadily in most countries.
    • 5. Dozens of countries have become democracies
    • 6.  There is much less violent conflict and war in developing countries.

    Why does this happen? Democracy and development --> spread of globalization
  23. Dadush and Dervis, “The Inequality Challenge.”
    • Difficult to calculate inequality because rich people are less likely to disclose how  much they make (no incentives to do so)
    • Investment in education and welfare systems helps relieve inequality
    • People are losing their jobs to innovations in technology --> making gap larger
    • Social mobility is more difficult in the US than in Europe
    • High inequality in Latin America and South Afrca
  24. Milanovic, “Winners of Globalization.”
    People in Asia raised their incomes significantly between the fall of the Berlin wall and the Great Recession, US did not really do this

    • Inequality of income in the US → may link to globalization or economic changesIn the European context there is more protection of wages, the change manifests through high unemployment → people feel angry about immigrants coming in and taking jobs Crisis of working class: something we will come back to as we talk about patterns of political economies in advanced industrialized states → we are in service economies → there are not as many jobs for the working class, working class people end up in lower and lower paying jobs → seen as a significant process
    • Wage Stagnation in US chart (on blackboard)
    • Rich people get richer, the working class have not gone up much since 1980
  25. Bonoli, “Europe’s Social Safety Net.”
    • Sustainability: If we are talking about large systems of social prevision there are questions about sustainability → can a welfare state become burdensome on the economy
    • Economic/Fiscal (many of these OECD countries are aging, can they keep up?)Demographic (older workers) → setting themselves up for difficulties in meeting their needs
    • People like welfare so they want to keep it that way, European nations take a lot of taxes to provide welfare, US has one of the worst welfare systems of the OECD
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AthenaPickleface
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PSC 1001 Midterm Readings
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Readings
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