Intro to Islam

  1. Abu Bakr
    • First Caliph
    • Commissioned Zayd to get a writtn record and be orally verified
    • Fia= just asked to do it
  2. Umar I (b. al-Khattab)

    • Second Caliph
    • Appointed by abu bakr

  3. Uthman (b. Affan)
    • Helps with the categorization
    • of the Quran
    • Cannot rely on
    • mnemonics
    • Uthmanic Mus haf- the quran we use today
    • Was chosen by counsel of six

  4. Ali ( b. Abi Talib)
    • Was chosen through majority
    • Fourth caliph
    • First Imam of the Shia
  5. Mu‘awiyah
    • Led a group to find who killed Uthman
    • Governor of Syria
    • Does not recognize Ali as rightly caliph
    • Battle of siffin

  6. ‘Abd Allah b. Zubayr
    Anti Caliph in Mecca aggainst the Ummayyads

  7. Shahādah
    • Testimony of Faith
    • There is no god but god and Muhammad is his messenger

  8. Umayyads
    • First Muslim dynasty from Quraysh
    • Are from Uthman's clan
    • Dynasty created by Mu‘awiyah
    • They don’t need the clans, they would rule in a royal family

  9. Abbasids
    • Another dynasty
    • 650 years

  10. Caliph
    • Normal ruler of the believers
    • Temporal successor to Muhammad
  11. Battle of Siffin
    • Fight between Ali and Mu‘awiyah
    • Ali is winning, M. calls a truce
    • The Khajirites wanted Ali dead because he was arbitrating
  12. Rightly Guided Caliphs
    Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali
  13. Sunna
    • Words
    • Actions
    • Tacit Approval
    • Sunnah is equal to quran in authority
    •     Quran is superior to everything else
  14. Hadith
    • The written sunnah
    • Does three things
    • Clarifies the quran
    • Reinforces the QuranSupplement
  15. Six Canonical collections of Sunni hadith
    • Bukhari
    • Muslim
    • Abu Daud
    • Tirmidhi
    • Nasai
    • Ibn Majah
  16. Five Pillars of Islam
    • Shahadah
    • Prayer
    • Times
    • Positions
    • Adhan
    • Friday congregation
    • Communal and individual
    • Fasting and Ramadan
    • Feeding 60 people
    • If you intentionally break, feed for two months
    • Zakat (alms)
    • Tax on surplus income
    • Everything above regular taxes
    • The clock stops to pay taxes
    • Paying income
    • Pilgrimage (Hajj)
  17. Articles of Faith (îmân)
    • Quran
    • Prophets
    • Books
    • Angels
    • Hereafter
    • Qadr- nothing can ultimately take place independent of god
  18. Mu‘tazilites
    • First Rationalist theological movement
    • Five Principles
    • Monotheism
    • Justice
    • Status between two statuses
    • If that person commits murder, is he a believer
    • Between a believer and a non believer
    • Promise and threat, god must fulfill his promises or threats
    • Command what is good/Forbid what is evil
  19. Ash‘arites
    • Second " " "
    • Opposed Mu'tazilites
  20. Mâturîdites
    Third " " "
  21. Ikhtilāf
    Disagreement/ plausible and acceptable
  22. Companion
    First generation that followed Muhammad
  23. ta’wîl
    • Alegorical/ figurative interpretation
    • God's Hand- power
  24. Four Sunni schools of law
    • Hanafi
    • Hanbali
    • Malaki
    • Shafi'I
    • All of the schools disagree with one another, but recognize as orthodox/athoritative
    • The islamic view of consensus- they all agree- the position of islamic law
  25. al-Ghazâlî (Ghazali)
    • Rationalist theologian
    • Incoherence of the Falasafah (neoplatonic philosophy)
  26. ijtihâd
    • The ability to make the independent interpretation of the sources
    • Goes independently and unmediated interpretation of the lawTaqlid- interpreting based off of the classical synthesis law
  27. murûwwah
    • Pre-Islamic ethical code
    • Bravery in battle
    • Persistence
    • Defiance to athority
    • Care for the weakGenerosity in Hardship
  28. asabîyah
  29. jâhilîyah
    Time of ignoranceThe concept was created by future muslims to discuss the end of pre-islamic period
  30. 570 CE
    Birth of prophet
  31. 610 CE
    • Meccan period begins
    • Becomes a prophet
  32. 622 CE
    Leaves for Medina; hijrah
  33. 632 CE
    Muhammad dies
  34. dalīl
    • Scriptural proof
    • Islamic Law is a Justificatory law
  35. ismah
    • Divine protection from error
    • The Quran and Sunnah
    • He is not incapable from making mistakes but he is protected from sustaining mistakes
  36. Tawhîd
    • Divine Monotheism
    • To make your Rabb and Illah oneYou can believe in one god and still commit shirk (that other people have supernatural powers)
  37. Philosophy vs. Falsafah
    • P- love of wisdom
    • F- particular mode of philosophy - islamisized neoplatonic philosophy
  38. muslim / mu’min
    • Muslim- one who submits
    • More of a communal term
    • Mumin- submits inwardly as well as outwardly
  39. Hijrah
    Pilgrimage to Medina
  40. Ummah
    Global Muslim community
  41. Five Fundamental Values (Maqāṣid)
    In Islamic law in Maslaha- interests that the law is meant to uphold
  42. Banû Hâshim
    Prophet's clan
  43. Mecca
    • 610-622: meccan period
    • Three themes
    • Prophethood
    • Tawhid
    • Hereafter
  44. Avicenna
    Western name for Ibn Sina
  45. Ka‘ba
    House of God
  46. al-Kindi
    • You cannot reject philosophy without philosophizing
    • There was a willed creation
    • Recognizes prophethood
    • Accepts the ultimate destruction of the world
  47. al-Farabi
    • God is pure thought
    • When you think about yourself, you create a thought
    • The thought is thinking about itself over and over again
    • Agent intellect
    • Our goal is to recognize the transition all the way to the one the original intellect
  48. Ibn Sina
    • Revelation only comes from prophethood after they remove themselves of bodily restrictions
    • God can only know universals
    • There can be no resurrection of the body
  49. Ibn Rushd
    • Is nothingness a thing= Rushd agrees
    • Does it have existence
    • The world was first an idea in the mind of God but later becomes a creation
    • The world can coequal with God if the idea is within the mind of God
  50. Mu‘tazilite Free Will
    • Both choice and power
    • Given power by God in the beginning
  51. Incoherence of the Philosophers
    • Ibn Sina and Al Farabi are infidels
    • Eternity
    • Universal
    • Body argument
    • Brought a negative connotation to falsafah
  52. Incoherence of the Incoherence
    • Defends falasafah
    • Allegorical
    • Rational defense
  53. Zahirites
    • all that is necessary lies in the text.
    • Islam as an entire religious system is tied to the literal letter of the law, no more and no less
  54. Khadijah
    First Wife of Prophet
  55. Constitution’ of Medina
    • Creates a pact between the prophet, his followers, and the non-believers
    • First time Muhammad had a mode of power
  56. “Classical Synthesis”
    • Creating competing articulations on what Islam means
    • Happened around 1000 CE

    • The criterion has now been established to find how people would determine how conversation on Islam was made
    • Certain articulation of Islam as authoritative
  57. Accident
    • Ilma kalam
    • Anything that occurs in Time/Space
    • God cannot be possessed of accidents
    • All things contain accidents
    • Everything that has an accident must have a producerWe have one unproduced producer: God
  58. Anthropomorphism
    The attribution of created elements to God
  59. Abû al-Hasan al-Ash‘arî
    Founder of the Asharites
  60. Abû Mansûr al-Mâturîdî
    Founder of the Maturidites
  61. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal
    Patron saint of Traditionalism
  62. Eid al-Fitr (‘Īd al-Fitr)
    3 day celebration marking the end of the fast of ramadan
  63. Eid al-Aḍhā (‘Īd al-Aḍhā)
    4 day celebration marking the end of Hajj
  64. Sharî‘ah
    Law of Islam as it exists in God's Mind
  65. Fiqh
    • Attempt to understand shari'ah through human interpretation
    • Might be shariah for you but not for anyone else
  66. Kasb
    • Acquisition- Asharites- they have free choice but power comes from God
    • Seperates choice from power
  67. Arabian vs. Arab
    • Arabians are those whose geneology begins with an arab
    • Arabs- newly learned, becomes and begins with something else.
    • Even though many never became muslims they will become arabs, sometimes faster than muslims
    • Previous languages and cultures died
    • The culture doesn’t die, in linguistics, buisness you would be native
    • Arabians argue that you need the correct dispositions to be able to correctly interpret tquran, and the other non arabs did not understand
    • Language barriers
    • Evolution of religion
    • Simple time constraints
  68. Ijmâ
    unanimous consensus
  69. Qiyâs
    • Analogy
    • Known specimen
    • Unknown specimen
    • Known rulingReaons/illah
  70. Illah
    • Reason for a ruling
    • Known thing
    • UnKnown rulling
    • Illah
    • Application of Illah
  71. Fatwâ
    • Legal Opinion
    • Nonbinding
    • Can be binding when unanimous consensus affirmed
  72. Muftî
    Legal expert of the law who is authorized to give a fatwa
  73. Istihsân
    • Disputed sources of law
    • Equity
    • Temporary setting aside of an otherwise valid rule in order to serve the intended purpose
  74. Maslahah
    • Disputed sources of law
    • Public Utility
    • Life
    • Religion
    • Progeny
    • Sanity
    • Property
    • Maybe Dignity- its really subjective
  75. Urf
    Custom anywhere
  76. Blocking the Means
    • Disputed sources of law
    • Don’t allow a legal act because it would likely lead to an illegal end. Charging interest but circumventing the rule to
  77. Five Legal Statuses
    • Haram
    • Makrah
    • Mubah
    • Mandub
    • Wajib
    • How the committer of the act will be welcomed in the hereafter
  78. Mâlik
    Founder of Malik
  79. Abû Hanîfah
    Founder Of Hanafi
  80. al-Shâfi‘î
    Founder of Shafi
  81. Ibn Hanbal
    Founder of Hanbal
  82. Taqlîd
    Conforming to the teaching of the modes found in the classical synthesis
  83. Battle of the Camel
    • Ali vs aisha and zayd
    • Aisha lost and retires
  84. madhhab
    • School of Law
    • Scholars who create law
  85. four agreed-upon sources of law
    • Quran
    • Sunnah
    • Qiyas
    • ijma
  86. kufr / kâfîr
    One who rejects/covers up
  87. Âyah
  88. Sûrah
  89. Prophethood
    • Revealed religion (revealed from god by vessel) not natural religion (we can know god by reading nature)
    • Without revealed religion, you'll constantly wonder what god truly wants
    • Muhammad is the last prophet
    • His evidence is his language, the quran is unparalleled
    • Three criticism
    • Contradiction between religiosity and paganism
    • Marriage to Aisha
    • His interaction with the Jewish tribes
  90. Wahy
  91. Rationalism
    • Adopting a system of reason and calling it reason itself
    • Used because there is an incredible deficit of relatability as Islam spreads and using reason is relatable to all cultures
  92. Traditionalism
    • This is how it has always been done
    • Rejects the syllogism used in the rationalist schools
    • Proves the existence of God through Fitra- primordial instinct
    • We just know because it is in our instinct
    • Arrational not Irrational
  93. Shirk
    Others are worthy of worship than god
  94. Reason vs. System of Reason
    • 1+1=2 or 10
    • Explaining 1+1 is reason, but picking the answer is the system of reason.
  95. Qur’ân/ mushaf
    • Recitation (oral)
    • Written record of Quran in a book
    • What preserves: Everyone knows, but cannot change because it will be checked
    • Quran
    • The verses are determined by the prophet, but the chapters are not
    • It is not linear
    • Chapters do not handle singular topics
    • Major themes
    • Not about god but about the human condition
    • Human is essentially good but forgetfull
    • Preeternal human condition (TO cover up what is true)
    • Our predisposition is to listen to God but we forget
  96. Tawâtur
    • Transmitted parts of the Sunnah
    • A finding that would be impossible for people to collude
  97. Aḥādī
    It comes from a small number of people such that it can be fallsifiable
  98. Abû Tâlib
    • Uncle of Prophet
    • Leader of banu Hashim
  99. Quraysh
    • Head of Mecca
    • Enemies of Muhammad
  100. Medina
    • M Begins to have power
    • Period 622-632
  101. Averroës
    Western name for Ibn Rush
  102. Isnâd
    a list of authorities who have transmitted
  103. Divine : Justice; Power; Wisdom;
    Theological priorities of the three rationalist schools
  104. Emanationism
    • God didn’t actively create creations
    • God had to be unchangable, how does the universe transition from nothing to something
    • God eminates what we call creations like a hand emanates heat
  105. Agent Intellect
    The final thought before material
  106. Mihna
    the period of religious persecution instituted by the 'Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun in 833 AD in which religious scholars were punished, imprisoned, or even killed unless they conceded the Mu'tazila doctrine of the created nature of the Qur'an.
  107. Rabb/Ilah
    • Rabb- creator; sustainor
    • Ilah- object of appeal for supernatural powers
  108. Muhammad b. Zakariya al-Razi
    • There was never a time when he wasn’t existing
    • We don’t need revealed religion, all we need is reason
    • The prophet stands in the way of natural religion
    • How can god reconcile the singling out of one people in order to have other people rely on the one people.
  109. Kalam/ ‘Ilm al-Kalam
    • Finding a proof or the existence of God
    • Replaces the cosmological reasoning of the existence of God
  110. Rasul
  111. Aishah
    • Last wife of Prophet Muhammad
    • Member who fought ali in the battle of camel
  112. Satanic Verses
    • Muhammad is with the elites, reciting the quran, talks about 3 pagan idols and satan makes him say:
    • These are the high flying swans to be interceded.
    • After which all members of elites prostrate
    • It is recorded by other muslims
    • Highly doubt historic truth
    • There is a minority who believe it How can we differentiate God and Satan
Card Set
Intro to Islam
first midterm