What are the four steps of the program development cycle
A community assessment also known as a _________ is both a _______ and ______
- needs assessment
- process (series of actions) and a product (results)
The process of an assessment involves _______ and the product generated from the needs assessment is termed the _______
- gathering information to determine what is needed to improve the health of a community
- community profile
What is demographic data
- characteristics of the target population
- age, gender, education level, occupation, income, ethnicity/language
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, monitored by the _____, is a great source for information.
What are some of the data that might be included in a community profile
- Demographic data (characteristics of the target population).
- The community’s oral health knowledge and attitudes about oral health and self-care practices.
- The community’s oral health status.
- The impact on the community of the current oral health status
Data that is already available is referred to as _________ and includes ________
- secondary data
- censuses, surveys, computerized health and information systems
Information collected directly is referred to as ________ and include ________
- primary data
- surveys,focus groups,observations and interviews
As a general rule, research of secondary data should be undertaken ______ to collecting primary data.
Information gathered for the community profile (the data) can be categorized as ________ or ________.
quantitative and/or qualitative
Qualitative data is a _________.
description about a person’s knowledge, attitude or behavior
Quantitative data is expressed in _________ and is ________.
- terms of numbers
What is intra-examiner reliability?
The ability of one examiner to get the same result with their own previous finding
What is inter-examiner reliability and what does it ensure
- When two different examiners get the same result
Validity is the
quality of being correct or true
Reliability is the
extent to which a procedure yields the same results on repeated trials. It is repeatability
Mapping is a tool that is used to ________.
identify trends and patterns in a community
What is another word for calibrated
What is the cost–benefit ratio
The difference between the cost of providing the program versus the cost of not providing the program
Program planning begins with a ________, followed by, _________, _________, and _________
- mission statement
- program goals, program objectives, program interventions (activities)
A mission statement is a __________ and should not include _________
- single statement that expresses a broad, overarching purpose for the program’s existence
- any goals, objectives, activities, or interventions
Program goals address __________ and are ________ statements
- identified needs and are more specific than the mission statement
Program objectives are designed to _________, because they guide program _________.
- meet goals and are more specific than goals
A common guide for writing objectives is the _______ formula and stands for ________
Program interventions are ________ and they are _________
- specific services or activities that will be implemented to change or improve the program participants’ knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, or awareness
Evaluation is one of the _________ and part of the ________ process.
- ten essential public health services
What are two types of program evaluation?
- Formative Evaluation
- Summative Evaluation
Describe a Formative Evaluation
- This is the internal evaluation of a program.
- It is an examination of the processes or activities of a program as they are taking place
Summative Evaluation involves
judging the merit or worth of a program after it has been in operation
Evaluation determines whether the program ________.
accomplishes what it was designed to accomplish
If the objectives has not been met that means the program was a failure? T or F
What are the six steps in public health program evaluation
- Engage Stakeholders
- Describe the Program
- Focus the Evaluation Design
- Gather Credible Evidence
- Justify Conclusions
- Ensure Use and Share Lessons Learned
________ are often used to describe programs.
What are the five elements that are critical for ensuring use of an evaluation.
- 1.The program design.
- 2.Preparation (groundwork) for the program.
- 3.Feedback (e.g., from participants
- 4.Follow-up (what was done with the feedback?).
- 5.Dissemination (how was information learned from the program distributed?).
In the center of the framework graphic is a set of ________ used for assessing the quality of evaluation activities.
What are the standards used for assessing the quality of evaluation activities
- Utility – Does the program serve the needs of intended users?
- Feasibility – Is the program realistic, show care and thought for the future, can it be reproduced, and is it economical?
- Propriety – Is the program legal, ethical, and take into regard the welfare of those involved and those affected by the program?
- Accuracy – Does the program reveal and convey technically accurate information?
What are four commonly used evaluation designs for health programs
- 1.Post program only.
- 2.Preprogram and post program.
- 3.Preprogram and post program with a comparison group.
- 4.Preprogram and post program with a control group
Which program evaluation is the least useful
Post program only
Describe the Preprogram and Post Program evaluation
Data is collected before the program begins and again at the end of the program
Which evaluation design describes where People are randomly assigned from the same overall target population
Preprogram and Post Program With a Control Group