Chapter 7

  1. A major physiological challenge facingĀ  multicellular animals
    Obtaining sufficient oxygen & disposing of excess CO2
  2. Diffusion is...?
    Passive and driven by the difference in O2 and CO2 concentrations on both sides of the membranes
  3. Ficks law
    ...Of Diffusion governs the rate of diffusion between the two areas
  4. Ways to optimize the rate of diffusion
    • 1. Increase surface area
    • 2. Decrease distance
    • 3. Increase conc difference or pressure differential
  5. In unicellular organisms, gases diffuse [BLANK]
  6. Amphibians respire [BLANK]
    across their skin
  7. How do echinoderms breathe (handle gas exchange
    Protruding papulae
  8. How do insects handle gas exchange?
    extensive tracheal system
  9. How do mammals handle gas exchange?
    A large network of alveoli
  10. Define: Gills
    Extension of tissue that project into water
  11. Function of Gills
    Increased surface are for diffusion
  12. 2 Disadvantages of gills
    • 1. Must be moved constantly
    • 2. Are more susceptible to damage
  13. Gills of bony fishes are located
    Between the oral cavity and the opercular cavities
  14. The functions of the oral cavity and opercular cavity
    pumps that expand alternatively
  15. (T/F) Blood flows opposite to the direction of water movement
  16. Why does blood flow opposite to the direction of water?
    Increases pressure differential & maximizes oxygenation of blood
  17. The most efficient of respiratory organs
    Fish Gills
  18. Why are gills not viable in terrestrial animals
    Water evaporates & air is less supportive than water
  19. (T/F) Lungs maximize evaporation by moving air through a branched tubular passage
  20. (T/F) Birds utilize a two-way flow system
  21. Amphibian lungs are formed as [BLANK]
    Saclike outpouchings of the guts
  22. Frogs (amphibians) force air into their lungs by creating a [1. BLANK] in the [2. BLANK]
    • 1. Positive
    • 2. Buccal Cavity
  23. Reptiles have [BLANK] breathing
    Negative Pressure
  24. Mammalian lungs are packed with [BLANK]
    Millions of alveoli
  25. Inhaled air passes through
    The larynx, glottis and trachea, then to the right & left bronchi then each lungs
  26. Alveoli are surrounded by an extensive [BLANK]
    Capillary network
  27. Bird lungs channel air through [BLANK]
  28. Bird respiration occurs in [BLANK]
    2 cycles
  29. Cycle 1 of bird respiration
    inhaled air travels from the trachea --> posterior air sacs --> lungs
  30. Cycle 2 of bird respiration
    Air is drawn from lungs --> anterior air sacs --> out trachea
  31. Gas exchange is driven by differences in [BLANK]
    partial pressures
  32. Outside each lung is covered by the [BLANK]
    Visceral Pleural Membrane
  33. Inner wall of the thoracic cavity is lined by [BLANK]
    Parietal pleural membrane
  34. The space between two membranes is called [BLANK]
    Pleural cavity
  35. Pleural cavity characteristics
    • 1. Small
    • 2. Fluid filled
    • 3. Joins 2 membranes together
    • 4. Helps lungs move with thoracic cavity
  36. Contraction of the external intercostal muscles expands the [BLANK]
    Rib cage
  37. Contractionof the diaphragm expands the [BLANK]
    Volume of the thorax and lungs
  38. Inhalation draws air into the lungs via [BLANK] pressure
  39. Expansion during inhalation puts the lungs and thorax under [BLANK] tension
  40. Elastic tension is released by [BLANK]
    The relaxation of the external intercostal muscles and diaphragm which causes unforced exhalation
  41. Define Tidal Volume
    Volume of air entering and exiting lungs of a person at rest
  42. Define Vital Capacity
    Max amount of air that can be expired after a forceful inspiration
  43. Define Hypoventilation
    Insufficient breathing
  44. Pco2 hypoventilation
    abnormally high
  45. Define Hyperventilation
    Excessive breathing
  46. Pco2 at Hyperventilation
    Abnormally low
  47. Breathing is controlled by the [BLANK]
    Neurons in the respiratory control center in the medulla oblongata
  48. What causes inhalation?
    External intercostal muscles are stimulated, causing the diaphragm to contract
  49. What causes exhalation?
    Neurons stop producing impulses, respiratory muscles relax
  50. (T/F) Neurons are not sensitive to blood Pco2 changes
  51. A rise in Pco2 causes [BLANK...3 steps]
    • 1. Increased carbonic acid production = lower blood pH
    • 2. Stimulates neurons in aortic and carotid bodies
    • 3. Sends impulses to respiratory control center to increase rate of breathing
  52. COPD
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • -Any disorder that obstructs airflow on a long term basis
  53. Define Asthma
    Release of histamine triggered by allergens causing intense constriction of the bronchi (& sometimes suffocation)
  54. Define Emphysema
    Lungs lose elasticity due to the breakdown of the alveolar walls causing the lungs to have larger and fewer alveoli
  55. Each Hemoglobin chain consists of how many polypeptide chains?
    4; 2 alphas & 2 betas
  56. Each polypeptide chain on hemoglobin is associated with a [BLANK]
    Heme group
  57. Each Heme group has a [BLANK]
    Central Iron atom that can bind an oxygen molecule
  58. Define oxyhemoglobin
    Hemoglobin loaded up with oxygen
  59. Define Deoxyhemoglobin
    Hemoglobin that loses oxygen atoms as blood passes through capillaries
  60. 4/5 of the oxygen in the blood is left as [BLANK]
    a reserve for the brain in case of exertion or loss of consciousness or cardiac failure
  61. Hemoglobins affinity for O2 is affected by [BLANK] & [BLANK]
    ph & temperature
  62. The pH effect is known as [BLANK]
    The Bohr shift
  63. 2 other gases that are transported by hemoglobin are
    Nitric oxide (NO) and Carbon monoxide (CO)
Card Set
Chapter 7
The Respiratory System