Chapter 2

  1. What distinguishes scientific and everyday observations?
    The differences between the Scientific mindset and everyday observations is that; First, science relies on objectivity, rather tan subjectivity. The second important difference between science and everyday observations is the use of systemic as opposed to hit-or-miss observation. Finally, science relies observable, repeatable evidence, whereas everyday observation often ignores evidence, especially when it runs counter to strongly held beliefs.
  2. Can you explain what is required to make an experimental design a double blind study?
    The double blind study can be explained by the double blind procedure and the place. The first "blind" aspect of this procedure is the inability of participants to know whether they have taken a real substance or a placebo. The second "blind" is achieved when the researchers do not know whether a participant has been given a real substance or placebo until the experiment is over.
  3. What is a Placebo?
    A placebo is an inactive substance or treatment that cannot be distinguished from a real, active substance or treatment.
  4. Can you distinguish between a theory or a hypothesis?
    A theory is a set of facts and relationships between facts that can explain and predict related phenomena, and a Hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a situation, usually taking the form 'If A happens", then B will be the result.
  5. What do we mean by replication in science? How does this differ from peer review?
    Replication means by repeating an experiment and producing the same results and Peer review means the process of having other experts examine research prior to its publication. that`s how Replication differs from Peer review.
  6. Can you distinguish between case studies, naturalistic observation, and surveys?
    Case studies provide an in-depth analysis of the behavior of one person or a small number of people. The Naturalistic observation is an in-depth study of a phenomenon in its natural setting, and Survey`s are a descriptive method in which participants are asked the same questions.
  7. What are some advantages of each of the methods above, case studies, naturalistic observation, and surveys?
    The advantages of Case studies include, medicine, law, and business. The advantages of the Naturalistic observation illustrates the importance of choosing a method that is well suited to the research goals. Like the case study method, naturalistic observation can be helpful for developing hypotheses, but other methods must be used to test them. Surveys provide a great deal of useful information quickly at relatively little expense.
  8. What is Correlation? What differentiates a positive and negative correlation? Can you think of examples of both?
    Correlation - A measure of the direction and strength of the relationship between two variables. The differences between a positive and negative correlation are that a positive correlationĀ  means high levels of one variable are associated with high levels if the other variable. Two variables can also show a negative correlation, in which high values of one variable are associated with low values from another. An example for correlation; For example, high levels of alcohol consumption among college students are usually associated with low GPAs.
  9. What is an Experiment? What is the most important conclusion that experiments allow us to reach? Are there any limitations to the experimental method?
    An experiment - A research method that tests hypotheses and allows researchers to make conclusions about causality. The most important conclusion we can reach are; there are no conclusions to experiments. There are no limitations to the experimental method.
  10. What is the difference between an independent and a dependent variable?
    The difference between an independent and dependent variable are; Independent variable - An experimental variable controlled and manipulated by the experimenter, the "if A happens" part of a hypothesis. An a Dependent variable - A measure that demonstrates the effects of an independent variable; the "result" part of a hypothesis.
  11. What is Operationalization?
    Operationalization - Defining variables in practical terms.
  12. What is Control Group?
    A group that experiences all experimental procedures with the exception of exposure to the independent variable.
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Chapter 2
Chapter 2 - The measure of the Mind (Methods of Psychology)