Body Tissues Quiz 4

  1. what are the four layers of the digestive tract wall?
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis externa (smooth muscle)
    • Serosa or adventitia
  2. what is the differences between the serosa and adventitia?
    serosa is the visceral peritoneum where it covers some organs

    adventita is the CT outer layer that surrounds portions of the organs that aren't surrounded by the serosa
  3. inner most later 
    contains simple columnar epithelium 
    deep boundary is muscularis mucosae
  4. What is the underlying loose CT of the mucosa called?
    lamina propria

    may contain glands
  5. contains dense irregular CT
    contains the Meissner nerve plexus
  6. where are submuscosal glands found?
    esophagus and duodenum
  7. how can you tell which submucosal gland you are looking at between the duodenum and esophagus?
    • duodenum: simple columnar
    • esophagus: stratified squamous epithelium
  8. Provides parasympathetic innervation to the muscularis mucosae and mucosa
    Meissner nerve plexus ganglion
  9. where is the muscularis externa found?
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Large intestine
    • Anal canal
  10. The muscularis external is what kind of tissue?
    Smooth muscle
  11. Where is the myenteric plexus located?
    Between the circular smooth muscle of the muscularis external and the longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis extern
  12. What outer layer contains:
    visceral peritonenum
    mesothelium and connective tissue
    structures within the peritoneal cavity
  13. What structures within the peritoneal cavity do you have serosa?
    • lower esophagus
    • stomach 
    • most of the small intestine
    • portion of colon
    • liver
  14. What outer layer contains:
    CT layer only
    structures OUTSIDE the peritoneal cavity
  15. what structures outside the peritoneal cavity do you have adventitia
    • upper esophagus
    • duodenum (portion of)
    • ascending and descending colon
    • rectum
    • pancreas
  16. what is the esophagus lined with?
    non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  17. What is the esophagus in the thoracic cavity lined with?
  18. What is the esophagus in the abdominal cavity lined with?
  19. What is characteristic about the mucosa in the esophagus?
    mucus-secereting glands 

    found in the proximal and distal portions of the esophagus
  20. What is characteristic about the submucosa in the esophagus
    mucus secreting glands throughout the length of the esophagus

    *called esophageal glands proper
  21. what is unique about the muscularis externa of the esophagus
    ›Upper third: Skeletal muscle

    ›Middle third: Skeletal and smooth muscle

    ›Lower third: Smooth muscle
  22. where does the abrupt transition from stratified squamous epithelium to simple columnar epithelium with gastric pits occur?
    at the gastroespohageal junctions
  23. some absorption takes place in the stomach...what is it of?



    ›Some drugs
  24. Name two functions of the stomach
    ›Secrete mucous to protect stomach lining

    ›Secrete intrinsic factor for absorption of vitamin B12--›Important for normal development of cells and RBCs (can cause anemia), also neruological conditions, and intraoral indications of B12 deficiency
  25. four regions of the stomach
    Cardia--narrow zone near GE junction

    Fundus--upper aspect of the stomach

    body--bulk of the stomach

    Pylorus--distal region near the gastroduodenal junction
  26. what is the stomach mucosa lined with?
    simple columnar mucous secreting epithelium
  27. what is a characteristic feature of the stomach?
    the gastric pits 

    epithelium invaginate into the underlying lamina propria and there are simple branched gastric glands at the base
  28. what is the submucosa in the stomach made of and what does it contain
    dense irregular CT

    Meissner nerve plexus
  29. what is unique about the stomach muscularis externa
    it has 3 layers!!

    ›Inner oblique layer

    ›Middle circular layer

    ›Outer longitudinal layer
  30. Does the stomach contain serosa or adventitia?
  31. what shape are the gastric glands?
    Simple tubular (with or without branching)
  32. what are the 4 different cell types of the gastric glands?
    1.Mucous neck cells

    2.Parietal cells (produce HCl and intrinsic factor)—in top of the gland

    3.Chief (zymogenic) cells—granular, paler, look like basophils—at the base of the gland—produce pepsinogen

    Enteroendocrine cells
  33. what cells are pale staining, located mainly in the upper third of the gastric glands and secrete muscus?
    mucous neck cells
  34. what cells are Large, triangular-shaped, eosinophilic cells, ›Most conspicuous, Scattered, but most are in the upper half of gland and Secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor (IF)
    parietal cells
  35. what cells are more basophilic than parietal cells and are more abundant near the base of the gastric glands
    chief (zymogenic) cells
  36. what cells secrete pepsinogen
    chief (zymogenic) cells
  37. Cells Found at base of gastric glands and ›Secrete gastrin
    gastric enteroendocrine cells (G cells)
  38. located in the lamina propria, simple tubular mucous glands, glands are continuous with gastric pits
    Cardiac glands
  39. resembles the cardia but gastric pits are deeper
  40. what do the gastric pits int eh pylorus contain
    mucus-secreting simple branched or coiled tubular pyloric glands that are similar to the cardiac glands
  41. plyoric glands secrete
  42. where does the abrupt transition back to intestinal epithelium occur?
    plyoric- duodenal junction
  43. project from surface of the intestinal epithelium and cause velvety appearance on inside

  44. ___ ____ ____  cells found with microvilli in the intestinal epithelium 

    simple columnar absorptive
  45. Crypts of Lieberkühn found throughout intestines ›have no what?
    gastric pits
  46. what does the intestinal epithelium contain?
    submucosal glands (brunner glands)
  47. functions of the small intestine (4)
    ›Completion of digestion (Enzymes from pancreas and liver and Surface glycocalyx contains enzymes)

    ›Absorption of nutrients

    ›Transportation of chyme and waste

    ›Hormone production
  48. larger permanent folds of mucosa--accordian like folds in the small intestine that increase surface area

    "largest bump"
    Pilcae circulares
  49. finger like projections covered by simple columnar epithelial cells 

    cores of lamina prepares with lacteals 
    give folds velvety like surface
  50. Create a visible “brush border” (aka striated border) in the intestines

    smallest bump
  51. where are the crypts of luberkuhns found?
    at the base of the villi 

    found throughout the small intestine
  52. what three special cells do the crypts include?
    Paneth cells (look like eosinphils and are always at the base of the crypts)

    ›Stem cells (mitotic cells)

    ›Enteroendocrine cells (APUD cells)
  53. dark esoinophillic granules in the crypts of luberkuhn that contain antimicrobial substances
    paneth cells
  54. defining characteristics of the duodenum (3)
    ›Numerous broad and tall villi

    ›Fewer Goblet cells

    First segment contains submucosal duodenal glands of Brunner (›These glands are mucous-secreting, Buffer acidic chyme, Thought to produce hormone urogastrone)
  55. True/False: muscularis mucosa sits directly beneath the crypts of luberkuhns in the duodenum
  56. defining characteristics of the jejunum (3)
    ›Villi are tall

    ›Tall, columnar absorptive cells and interspersed Goblet cells

    ›Does not contain submucosal glands of Brunner
  57. TRUE/FALSE: the jejunum is similar to the duodenum no submucosal glands of Brunner and more Goblet (mucous) cells

    ›Will see more as you go down the intestines
  58. defining characteristics of the ileum (3)
    Fewer and shorter villi

    ›Lot of Goblet cells

    ›Peyer patches are prominent (large aggregates of lymph nodules and ›part of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) or gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)
  59. What are the defining characteristics of the colon? (4)
    ›No plicae circulares or villi (flatter surface)

    ›No Paneth cells

    ›The outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa is arranged into 3 bands called taeniae coli

    ›Haustra are pouch-like folds in the wall of the colon due to contraction of taeniae coli
  60. What color do the goblet cells stains in the colon
  61. where is the appendix located?
    it is on the right side of the body and sits on the junctions of the small intestine and colon
  62. in the anorectal junction the cells go from what to what?
    simple columnar epithelium to stratified squamous
Card Set
Body Tissues Quiz 4
Body Tissues Quiz