Chapter 16 & 17

  1. A single sensory neuron is responsible for carrying sensations from how many modalities?
  2. Can a sensory hair cell in the cochlea carry visual impulses?
  3. What is proprioception?
    Awareness of body position in space at any given time
  4. Which area of the cerebral cortex plans and organizes movement before we actually do the move?
    Premotor cortex
  5. What does the descending pathway consist of?
    Upper motor and lower motor neurons
  6. What does the trigeminal ganglion contain?
    Cell bodies of sensory trigeminal nerve
  7. Does the spinothalamic tract carry sensory information to the brain?
  8. What would happen to a person with damage to the basal nuclei?  Are hand tremors part of it?
    Problems with speech posture and movement, mostly movement, yes
  9. What is the sensory homunculus?
    Representation of each body part in the cerebral cortex
  10. What structure in the midbrain is damaged in Parkinson’s Disease?
    Substantia nigra
  11. Know the second messenger involved with olfaction.
    cAMP, is used to amplify the signal
  12. Know that the Lateral Olfactory area of the frontal lobe
    Is involved in the perception of smell
  13. Taste cells have microvilli or cilia extending into taste pores?
  14. What cranial nerve carries taste fibers from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
    Facial nerve
  15. Know the tongue papillae and their description
    Filiform-most abundant and lacks tastebuds, fungiform-lookslike mushroom, circumvallate -only 12 of them in back of the tongue only and associated with bitter taste? Foli-have tastebuds in childhood but go away
  16. Do the medial canthi contain sebaceous glands?
  17. Where is the lacrimal gland located?
    Superolateral corner of the eye
  18. The pupillary sphincter is located in the
  19. Know what structure produces aqueous humor
    Ciliary process
  20. Are the inner hair cells or outer hair cells responsible for hearing?
    Inner hair cells
  21. Do the semi-circular canals detect static or kinetic equilibrium?
    Kinetic equilibrium
  22. What structure does the stapes press on?
    Oval window
  23. What membrane  of the eye is involved in “pink eye?”
  24. The iris can be observed through what structure?
  25. What structure in the eye regulates the amount of light that comes in?
  26. What is Presbycusis, and does it affect both ears or just one?
    Both ears, age related hearing loss
  27. What is cataract?  How is it treated?
    Cloudiness of the lens, treated with surgery, replacing the lens
  28. Hot and cold stimuli are perceived by
    Thermoreceptor which are free nerve endings
  29. What membrane do the hair cells of the cochlea rest on?
    Basilar memebrane
  30. Know what the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles do
    Protects ear from loud sounds
  31. What structures in the inner ear detect angular acceleration?
    Semicircular canals or most clearly crista ampilaris of the semicircular canals
  32. Know the tunics and what structures they contain
    Tunica fibrosa-sclera and the cornea, tunica vasculosa-choroid with ciliary body and the iris
  33. What is gustation?
  34. Five primary tastes can be distinguished
    salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami
  35. What is a taste bud?
    An oval body consisting of three kinds of epithelial cells: supporting cells, gustatory receptor cells, and basal cells
  36. Chemicals that stimulate gustatory receptor cells are known
  37. Infection of the tarsal glands produces a tumor or cyst on the eyelid called
  38. These muscles are capable of moving the eye in almost any direction.
    Superior rectus, inferior rectus, lateral rectus, medial rectus, superior oblique, and inferior oblique
  39. What does the cornea do?
    Admits and refracts light
  40. What does the sclera do?
    Provides shape and protects inner parts
  41. What does the choroid do?
    Provides blood supply and absorbs scattered light
  42. What does the retina do?
    Receives light and converts it into receptor potentials and nerve impulses
  43. What does the lens do?
    Refracts light
  44. Anterior cavity
    Contains aqueous humor that helps maintain shape of eyeball and supplies oxygen and nutrients to lens and cornea
  45. Vitreous chamber
    Contains vitreous body that helps maintain shape of eyeball and keeps retina attached to choroid
  46. What does the tensor tympani muscle do?
    It is supplied by the trigeminal nerve and limits movement and increases tension on the eardrum to prevent damage to the inner ear from loud noises
  47. What is hyperacusia?
    Abnormally sensitive hearing, because of paralysis of stapedius muscle
  48. What does the auricle (pinna) do?
    Collect sound waves
  49. What does the external auditory canal do?
    Directs sound waves to eardrum
  50. What does the Tympanic membrane do?
    Sound waves cause it to vibrate, which in turn causes malleus to vibrate
  51. What do auditory ossicles do?
    Transmit and amplify vibrations from tympanic membrane to oval window
  52. What does the auditory tube do?
    Equalizes air pressure on both sides of tympanic membrane
  53. What do utricle do?
    Detects linear acceleration of deceleration that occurs in a horizontal direction and also head tilt
  54. What do saccule do?
    Detects linear acceleration of deceleration that occurs in a vertical direction
  55. What is Glaucoma?
    Most common cause of blindess afflicting 2% of people over 40 and caused by abnormally high intraocular pressure of fructose buildup
  56. What is Meniere's disease?
    An increased amount of endolymph that enlarges the membranous labrynth
  57. Nearsightedness or myopia can be corrected with what type of lenses?
    Concave lenses
  58. Farsightedness or hyperopia can be corrected with what type of lenses?
    Convex lenses
  59. Innervation for anterior 2/3 of tongue
    Facial VII
  60. Innervation for posterior 1/3 of tongue
  61. Taste sensation at posterior portion of tongue
  62. A normal shaped lens is
  63. Condition where eyeball is too long
  64. Condition where eyeball is too short
  65. Structure that prepares you for night time and produces melatonin
    Pineal gland
  66. Is optic disc medial or lateral to fovea centralis?
Card Set
Chapter 16 & 17