Chapter 4

  1. The Physical Basis of Behavior
    Perceived social isolation or connectedness can produce changes in the cells of our immune system. 

    Human brains weigh about 3 pounds and contain approximately 100 billion neurons. 

    Not only does biology influence behaviors, but behavior affects biology.
  2. Pons
    A part of the brainstem located between the medulla and the midbrain.
  3. Cerebellum
    A structure attached to the brainstem that participates in skilled movements, and in humans complex cognitive processing.
  4. Midbrain
    The part of the brainstem that lies between pons and the cerebral hemisphere.
  5. Reticular formation
    A collection of structures located along the midline of the brainstem that participates in mood, arousal, and sleep.
  6. Thalamus
    A subcortical structure involved with processing of sensory information, states of arousal, learning and memory.
  7. Basal ganglia
    A collection of subcortical structures that participate in the control of movement.
  8. Hippocampus
    A subcortical structure that participates in memory.
  9. Cingulate cortex
    A subcortical structure above the corpus callosum. It`s anterior (forward) segment participates in decision making and emotion and its posterior (rear) segment participates in memory and visual processing.
  10. Nucleus accumbens
    A subcortical structure that participates in reward and addiction.
  11. Corpus callosum
    A wide band of nerve fibers connecting the right and the left cerebral hemispheres.
  12. Cerebral cortex
    The thin layer of neurons covering the outer surface of the cerebral hemisphere.
  13. Frontal lobe
    The most forward of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex: location of the primary motor cortex and areas responsible for some of the most complex cognitive process.
  14. Partial lobe
    The lobe of the cerebral cortex that lies at the top off the head between the frontal and the occipital lobes; location of the primary somatosensory cortex.
  15. Occipital lobe
    The lobe of the cerebral cortex located at the back of the brain; location of the primary visual cortex.
  16. Temporal lobe
    The lobe of the cerebral cortex that curves around the side of each hemisphere; location of the primary auditory cortex.
  17. Prefrontal cortex
    The most forward part of the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex.
  18. Orbitofrontal cortex
    A part of the prefrontal cortex located right behind the eyes that participates in impulse control.
  19. Somatic nervous system
    The part of the peripheral nervous system that brings sensory information to the central nervous system and transmits commands to the muscles.
  20. Autonomic nervous system
    The division of the peripheral nervous system that directs that activity of glands, organs, and smooth muscles.
  21. parasympathic nervous system
    The part of the autonomic nervous system associated with rest, repair, and energy storage.
  22. Enteric nervous system
    A division of the autonomic nervous system consisting of nerve cells embedded in the lining of the gastrointestinal system.
  23. Endocrine system
    A system responsible for the release of hormones into the bloodstream.
  24. Neuron
    A cell of the nervous system that is specialized for sending and receiving neural messages.
  25. cell body
    The large, central mass of a neuron, containing the nucleus.
  26. Axon
    The branch of a neuron that is usually responsible for transmitting information to other neurons.
  27. dendrite
    A branch from the neural cell body that usually receives input from other neurons.
  28. myelin
    The insulating material covering some axons.
  29. action potential
    The electrical signals arising in a neurons axon.
  30. resting potential
    The measure of the electrical charge across a neural membrane when the neuron is not processing information.
  31. synapse
    A point of communication between two neurons.
  32. neurotransmitters
    A chemical messenger that communicates across a synapse.
  33. receptor
    A special channel in the membrane of a neuron that interacts with neurotransmitters released by other neurons.
  34. reuptake
    A process in which molecules of neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap are returned to the axon terminal from which they were released.
Card Set
Chapter 4
Chapter 4 - The Biological Mind