1. Antrostomy
    broadly defined as making an opening into the maxillary sinus for the purpose of drainage; treat maxillary sinusitis
  2. Cerumen
  3. Septum
    a partition separating two chambers, such as that between the nostrils
  4. Sputum
    a mixture of saliva and mucus coughed up from the respiratory tract, typically as a result of infection or other disease.
  5. Epistaxis
    nose bleed
  6. Myringotomy (BMT)
    A myringotomy is a small incision made in the tympanic membrane to allow the drainage of fluid from the middle ear. This accumulation of fluid is called an effusion. This may be caused by inflammation of the middle ear mucosa or Eustachian tube dysfunction due to congenital anomalies, inflammation of nasal mucosa (allergies), or, most commonly, enlarged adenoids.

    If untreated, the effusion may lead to infection (including mastoiditis), hearing loss, or perforation. Effusions are seen in patients of all ages; however, most adults are treated in the office. 

    A tympanostomy tube is frequently inserted to maintain the patency of the myringotomy and allow the fluid to drain freely and pressure to equalize within the middle ear. Tubes are usually not removed but rather left in place until they fall out.
  7. Septoplasty
    most often performed to correct a deviated septum or repair a perforated septum caused by trauma; sometimes done with rhinoplasty for cosmetic correction of the deformities of the nose. surgeon works through the nostrils, making an incision in the lining of the septum to reach the cartilage targeted in the operation. Internal splints may be inserted into the septum and sutured in place.
  8. Turbinectomy
    Turbinectomy is performed to improve nasal airflow. Nasal airflow may be impaired by the chronic engorgement of the middle and/or inferior turbinate, which causes nasal congestion and rhinorrhea.


    The nose is packed with a vasoconstrictive agent, and a local anesthetic is instilled into the turbinate.

    A nasal speculum is inserted.

    The surgeon removes the affected turbinate.

    The nose is packed if necessary.
  9. Stapedectomy
    Stapedectomy is performed to restore mobilization of the ossicular chain.

    This is done in patients who have hearing loss that can progress to deafness.


    The auditory canal is injected with lidocaine.

    The external auditory canal is cleaned.

    The surgeon places the speculum in the ear.

    The tympanic membrane is elevated.

    The affected ossicles are freed or removed.

    The prosthesis is placed and secured (as shown in Figure _).

    The tympanic membrane is replaced.

    The external canal is packed, and the dressing is applied.
  10. Tracheostomy
    Tracheostomy is indicated for patient who require emergent or elective airway management of prolonged ventilator dependence or acute or chronic upper airway obstruction.


    An incision is made over the anterior tracheal wall.

    The surgeon visualizes the tracheal wall.

    The tracheal incision is made, usually between the third and fourth tracheal rings.

    The endotracheal tube is partially removed to the point superior to the tracheal incision.

    The tracheostomy tube is inserted.

    Hemostasis is achieved.

    Tracheostomy tube is secured.

    Dressings are applied.

    The obturator from the endotracheal tube is sent with the patient.
  11. Tympanoplasty
    Tympanoplasty is performed to eradicate disease, close a defect, and improve hearing.  Such disorders include, Non-healing perforations, Dysfunction of the eustacian tube, Cholesteatoma.


    The procedure is simular to myringotomy (in terms of patient positioning, prepping and draping), except the graft taken is fascia.

    The tympanic membrane is removed and prepped for grafting.

    The ear canal is enlarged with a drill.

    The TM is reconstructed with the fascia graft.

    The incision is closed, and the ear canal is packed.
  12. UPPP
    Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty,  This procedure is performed to correct upper-airway obstructions, such as sleep apnea


    The patient’s mouth is retracted with a Crow-Davis mouth gag, which is then suspended from the Mayo stand.

    The surgeon retracts the tonsil.

    The tonsil is removed.

    The uvula and soft palate are retracted.

    The uvula and soft palate are excised.

    Hemostasis is established.

    The soft palate is closed.
  13. FESS
    Frontal Sinus Surgery, the surgeon inserts an endoscope, a small tube with a magnifying lens or tiny camera, into your nostrils and guides it into your sinus cavities. He or she uses tiny instruments to remove polyps and other obstructions that block the flow of fluids from your sinuses. Your surgeon may also enlarge the openings leading from your sinuses to your nasal passages.
  14. SMR
    Submucosal Resection, SMR) of the nose is a surgical procedure during which the bony structures of the turbinate are partially removed from below the mucous membrane. It is usually intended to treat a deviated septum causing chronic nasal airway obstruction or chronic nosebleeds.
  15. 4% cocaine
    vasoconstrictor; soak cottonoid and packing, only used topically
  16. Xylocaine
    local anesthetic lidocaine
  17. Procaine
    local anesthetic
  18. Tonsils and types of tonsils
    Lingual tonsils - Protein region of the tongue and anchored to the hyoid bone. Palatine tonsils - Back of mouth and side of Tongue. Helps protect body against infection. Pharyngeal tonsils - Protect walls of the pharynx above the boarder of the soft palate.
  19. “Adam’s apple”
    laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx.
  20. Epiglottis
    a flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to cover the opening of the windpipe (trachea).
  21. Turbinates
    are structures on the side wall of the inside of the nose. They project into the nasal passages as ridges of tissue. The turbinates help warm and moisturize air as it flows through the nose. The inferior turbinates can block nasal airflow when they are enlarged.
  22. Tympanic membrane
    a membrane forming part of the organ of hearing, which vibrates in response to sound waves. In humans and other higher vertebrates it forms the eardrum, between the outer and middle ear.
  23. Sinuses
    The sinuses are lined by mucous membranes

    Frontal – located within the frontal bone behind the eyebrows; may be one cavity or divided

    Ethmoid – located between the eyes; contain 10-15; have a honeycomb appearance

    Sphenoid – located directly behind the nose at the center of the skull; may be one cavity or divided

    Maxillary – located below the eyes and lateral to the nasal cavity.
  24. CN 1
    • Olfactory, 
    • Type: Sensory
    • Function: Sense of Smell
  25. CN 2
    • Optic, 
    • Type: Sensory
    • Function: Vision
  26. CN 3
    • Oculomotor
    • Type: Motor
    • Function: Raise eyelids, move eyes, regulate the size of pupils, focus of lenses.
  27. CN 4
    • Trochlear
    • Type: Motor
    • Function: Eye movements, proprioception
  28. CN 5
    • Trigeminal
    • Type: Mixed
    • Function: Sensations of the head and face, chewing movements, and muscle sense.
  29. CN 6
    • Abducens
    • Type: Motor
    • Function: Produce movements of the eyes
  30. CN 7
    • Facial
    • Type: Mixed
    • Function: Facial expressions, secretion of saliva, taste.
  31. CN 8
    • Vestibulocochlear
    • Type: Sensory
    • Function: Balance or equilibrium sense. Hearing.
  32. CN 9
    • Glossopharyngeal
    • Type: Mixed
    • Function: Taste and other sensations of tongue, swallowing, secretion of saliva, aid in reflex control of blood pressure and respiration.
  33. CN 10
    • Vagus
    • Type: Mixed
    • Function: Transmit impulses to muscles associated with speech, swallowing, the heart, smooth muscles of visceral organs in the thorax, and abdomen.
  34. CN 11
    • Accessory
    • Type: Motor
    • Function: Turning movements of the head, movements of the shoulder and viscera, voice production.
  35. CN 12
    • Hypoglossal
    • Type: Motor
    • Function: Tongue movements
  36. Takahashi
    Image Upload 1
  37. Cottle
    • elevator
    • Image Upload 2
  38. Aufricht
    Image Upload 3
  39. Joseph
    Image Upload 4
  40. bronchoscopes
    viewing airwayImage Upload 5
  41. esophagoscopes
    A form of endoscope for inspecting the eImage Upload 6sophagus.
  42. laryngoscopes
    endoscopy of the larynx.Image Upload 7
  43. What tissue is used for otologic procedure grafts?

    Temporalis fascia
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