Name the different types of radiation and what form they travel in.
- 1. Alpha: Particle
- 2. Beta: Particle
- 3. Gamma: Wave
- 4. Neutron: Particle
What type of shielding stops an Alpha Particle?
Paper, skin, clothing, etc.
What type of shielding stops a Beta Particle?
Plastic, glass, light metals, etc.
What type of shielding stops Gamma Radiation (Wave)?
Concrete, water, oil, polyethylene
What type of shielding stops a Neutron Particle?
Lead, concrete, earth.
How are nuclear blasts classified?
Location of the fireball with respect to the surface of the Earth.
What constitutes a High Altitude Blast and what are some effects?
- 1. 100,000ft and above
- 2. EMP damage
- 3. Satellite blackout
- 4. Flash blindness
What constitutes an Air Burst and what are some effects?
- 1. Below 100,000ft; fireball doesn't touch the surface of the Earth.
- 2. EMP/TREE damage
- 3. Blackout
- 4. Initial Radiation
- 5. Thermal Radiation
- 6. Flash Blindness
- 7. Blast/Shockwave
What constitutes a Surface Burst and what are some effects?
- 1. At or slightly above the surface of the Earth.
- 2. Fallout
- 3. Initial Radiation
- 4. Radioactive Pool
- 5. Blackout
- 6. EMP/TREE Damage
- 7. Blast/Shockwave
What does TREE stand for and what are the effects?
- 1. Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics
- 2. Caused by the Initial Radiation
- 3. Temporary (transient) or permanent
- 4. Neutron/Gamma radiation disrupts controlling currents & voltages.
- 5. Creates ionization of electrical components.
What is the breakdown of energy in a fission reaction?
- 1. EMP - 1%
- 2. Initial Radiation - 4%
- 3. Residual Radiation - 10%
- 4. Thermal Radiation -35%
- 5. Blast - 50%
What part of the sequence of events for a nuclear blast concerns the DCA the most?
What are the potential effects of an Air Blast on a ship?
- 1. Hull & superstructure damage
- 2. Capsize
- 3. Missile Hazards
- 4. Internal Injuries
What are the potential effects of an Underwater Burst on a ship?
- 1. Hull & framing deformation
- 2. Shaft & Piping Misalignment
- 3. Missile Hazards
- 4. Shock
What are the potential effects of a Radioactive Pool on a ship?
Difficult to predict
What are the potential effects of Fallout/Residual Radiation on a ship?
- 1. Principle Concern for a ship.
- 2. Exposure lasts until three conditions are met:
- a. Radioactive decay @ safe level
- b. Contamination is removed
- c. Individual move to a safe area
What are the potential effects of an EMP on a ship?
- 1. Overload circuitry
- 2. Electrical shock
- 3. Hardwired electronic equipment failure
- 4. Computer program failure
How does radiation enter the body?
- 1. Breathing (inhalation)
- 2. Eating/Drinking (ingestion)
- 3. Absorption through skin (absorption)
- 4. Penetrated energy (penetration)
What are some signs/symptoms of exposure?
- 1. Nausea
- 2. Vomiting
- 3. Diarrhea
- 4. Redness of skin
- 5. Radiation burns
- 6. Hair loss
- 7. Mental status change
- 8. Seizures
- 9. Coma
- 10. Death
At what exposure level do personnel generally start to feel the affects?
How do you treat radiation exposure?
- 1. Treat conventional injuries first
- 2. Stabilize the individual
- 3. Decontaminate after
- 4. Obtain a Complete Blood Count (CBC) every 6 hours
What are some ways to mitigate the effects of a nuclear attack?
- 1. Severe Weather Bill
- 2. Ship maneuvering
- 3. Deep shelter
- 4. CMWDS
- 5. Material condition Zebra
- 6. Individual Protective Equipment (IPE)
- 7. Avoid topside during a blast
- 8. Issue dosimeters (MOPP II)
- 9. Crew rotation
- 10. Circle William
What constitutes a Whole Body Dose?
A dose that covers Neck to Hips (with Vital Organs including Eyes)
What dose level is considered fatal?
10,000 rad Whole Body Dose
What is the shelf life and calibration requirement for the IM-270/PD (SICD) Self Indicating Casualty Dosimeter?
- 1. 10 year shelf life
- 2. 8 year calibration requirement
What is the detection range of the IM-270/PD (SICD) Self Indicating Casualty Dosimeter?
- 1. 10-1,000 rads in 1 rad increments with real-time LCD readout.
- 2. Measures X-Ray and Gamma ray radiation.
What does the IM-270/PD (SICD) detect?
What is the detection range of the DT-680/PDQ Gamma/Beta Probe?
1. 1.0 mR/hr to 1,000 R/hr.
What does the DT-680/PDQ Probe detect?
- 1. Beta (Slide Open)
- 2. Gamma
What is the calibration requirement of the IM-265/PDQ RADIAC meter?
36 months (IM-266/PDQ is 12 months)
What is the detection range of the IM-265/PDQ RADIAC meter?
- 1. 0-1,000 mR/hr
- 2. 0-1,000 R/hr
What does the IM-265/PDQ RADIAC meter detect?
1. Gamma only
What are the top, most common, issues with the IM-265/PDQ RADIAC meter?
- 1. It's missing
- 2. They're out of calibration
- 3. Batteries are corroded
What are the ship distance vulnerabilities when mitigating nuclear effects?
- 1. Yield
- 2. Type of Burst (Type of Radiation)
- 3. Height/Depth of burst
- 4. Ship's Hardness
What is a hot spot?
Area where level of radioactivity is two or more times that of the surrounding area.
Who is on a survey and monitoring team?
- 1. Team Leader
- 2. Recorder
- 3. Messenger
What does the survey and monitoring team carry with them?
- 1. RADIAC Meter and Probe
- 2. Dosimeters
- 3. Protective Clothing
- 4. Survey Forms
- 5. CBRD Marking Kit
What is the composition of a topside decontamination team?
- 1. One Team Leader
- 2. 2-4 Hosemen
- 3. 4-6 Scrubbers
What is the order of decontamination for topside decon?
- 1. Top to Bottom
- 2. Forward to Aft
- 3. Windward to Leeward
What are the five types of radiological surveys?
- 1. On Station Monitoring
- 2. Rapid Internal Survey
- 3. Rapid External Survey
- 4. Supplementary
- 5. Detailed
What is MPE?
- 1. Maximum permissible exposure; the basis personnel rotation.
- 2. Set at 150 rads.
- 3. CO can authorize change.
What is the purpose of a radiological plot?
A graphical representation of fallout from a nuclear detonation.
What are the two types of nomogram?
- 1. Fallout Decay (three column)
- 2. Total Dose (five columns)
When filling out a survey form, how many spots are left clear to document hot spots?
What is the main concern when a dirty bomb is set off?
Prolonged exposure from fallout.
What are some potential effects on the human body?
- 1. Break DNA chain
- 2. Cell death
- 3. Irreparable damage
- 4. Cell mutations
- 5. Cell reproduction ceases
- 6. Cancer
What can a dirty bomb explosion result in (societal effects)?
- 1. Panic
- 2. Mass casualties with difficult injuries
- 3. Medical facilities overloaded
- 4. Contamination issues
- 5. Gridlock
- 6. Public services disrupted
What is a RDD?
Conventional explosive that is coupled with radioactive material.
What are some key actions at MOPP 0?
Sizing and issue of CBRN IPE
What are some key actions at MOPP 1?
- 1. Conduct operational inspection of all RAD Detection and monitoring systems.
- 2. Equip all personnel with protective masks in carriers.
- 3. Inventory stowed RAD detection equipment, decon supplies, and draw replacement items from Supply.
- 4. Check calibration and OPTEST RADIAC's.
- 5. Review CBR Defense Bill, verify personnel assignments.
- 6. Set Readiness Condition III & Material Condition YOKE.
What are some key actions at MOPP 2?
- 1. Protective mask is in carrier and worn on person.
- 2. Issue dosimeters.
- 3. Pre-position DECON supplies in DECON stations and Repair Lockers IAW CBR Bill.
- 4. OPTEST CMWDS and Chemical Alarm.
- 5. Set material Readiness Condition MOD Z.
What are some key actions at MOPP 3?
- 1. GQ, Set ZEBRA
- 2. Strike below all nonessential porous, absorbent, & flammable material
- 3. All non-essential personnel proceed to Deep Shelter.
- 4. Fill pre-positioned canteens with potable water.
- 5. Activate primary decon stations and CCA's & assure operability.
- 6. Post & monitor detection equipment & materials designated by CBR Bill.
- 7. Activate CMWDS intermittently (every 15 min).
What are some key actions at MOPP 4?
- 1. Don protective mask.
- 2. Set Circle William.
- 3. Send as many individuals as possible to Deep Shelter.
- 4. Initiate continuous monitoring & operation of Detection Equipment.
- 5. Activate CMWDS continuously.
- 6. Secure non-essential equipment & sea suctions if appropriate.
What are the four methods of exposure reduction?
- 1. Shielding
- 2. Time
- 3. Distance
- 4. Transfer
When can decontamination commence?
After fallout ceases.
What are two key facts that must be considered when conducting radiological decon?
- 1. Decon doesn't destroy radiation.
- 2. Goal is to restore object to use.
What is the definition of a hot spot?
An area having an intensity two or more times that of the surrounding area.
What are some materials that are likely to product hot spots?
- 1. Cordage
- 2. Rust
- 3. Scale
- 4. Water
What's the purpose and what happens during on station monitoring?
- 1. Conducted prior to the cessation of Fallout.
- 2. Monitor and report Gamma intensities at time intervals determined by the DCA.
- 3. Beta checks to check for ship infiltration.
- 4. DCA determines locations: e.g. Repair Lockers, CIC, etc.
- 5. Used to determine Tc.
What's the purpose and what happens during a Rapid Internal Survey?
- 1. Performed immediately after cessation of fallout.
- 2. Provides indication of the location & severity of hazards at specific internal areas.
- 3. External stations monitored from inside the ship.
- 4. Survey locations predetermined, marked, and listed in the CBRD Bill.
- a. Vent Ducts
- b. Weatherdeck doors/hatches
- c. Sea Chests
What's the purpose and what happens during a Rapid External Survey?
- 1. Performed directly following the Rapid Internal Survey.
- 2. Also known as "gross external survey."
- 3. Intended to obtain more precise radiation levels topside at vital stations.
- 3. Monitoring teams don't stop to locate, mark, and isolate hot spots. Only gathering accurate measurements at action and vital stations.
What's the purpose and what happens during a Supplemental Survey?
- 1. Performed upon:
- a. Completion of decon air purge
- b. Dosimeter measurements not matching predicted dose.
- c. Watch section rotation
- 2. Intended to:
- a. Confirm/revise stay times
- 2. Localize hot spots for decon
- 1. Messing/Berthing/Fan Rooms (leave dosimeters)
- 2. Assess contamination of food, water, & interior air
What's the purpose and what happens during a Detailed Survey?
- 1. Performed:
- a. At the request of the CO
- b. If the tactical situation permits
- 2. Intended to:
- a. Cover shipwide or specific areas
- b. Cover any area in which measured dosages exceed predicted levels by more than 25%.
- c. Prior to entering repair facility if industrial decon is ordered.
- 3. Notes:
- a. Accuracy is more important than speed.
- b. Utilize the grid map method.
- c. Divide the ship into one square grid squares.
What are the four marking plates and what size are they?
- 1. Chemical
- 2. Biological
- 3. Radiological
- 4. Unexploded Munition
- 5. 8" x 11.5" x 8"
What is the criteria for Time of Arrival (Ta)?
- 1. First plotted reading in a steady rise.
- 2. Twice the normal background reading.
What is the criteria for Time of Peak (Tp)?
1. Highest plotted intensity following Ta.
What is the criteria for Time of Cessation (Tc)?
1. First of three plotted readings in a steady decay that forms a straight downward diagonal line.
What is the definition of H hour?
- 1. Instant of weapon detonation.
- 2. If unknown, log-log plot is based on assumed time.
What is an acute dose?
Dose received in a period less than 24 hours.
What is a chronic dose?
Dose received in a period greater than 24 hours.
Where can you find the specific Transmission Factors for your ship?
- 1. NSTM 070
- 2. Ship's DC Book
What value is used as normal background radiation reading?
What is the intensity at H+60, otherwise known as Standard Intensity?
What must be known if before you can solve any nomogram problem?
What information can be found using a nomogram?
What does RADIAC stand for?
What are some considerations with Topside Decontamination?
- 1. Manpower intensive
- 2. Complete coverage
- 3. Crew rotation
When decontaminating personnel, what is the purpose of the CCA?
- 1. Temporary Storage Area
- 2. Clothing bagged and tagged
- a. Stored for 24 hours prior to laundering
- b. Near the CCA
What are the phases of a dirty bomb explosion?
- 1. Initial Explosion
- 2. Fallout