Bio test 1

  1. what is a hypothesis
    general statement about what you are trying to study, shows no indication of how experiment is run
  2. What is the scientific method?
    steps to help you conduct research on an experiment
  3. what is data?
    gathered during research
  4. what is a fact?
    idea proven by data
  5. what is a question?
    Very unspecific, no data behind it
  6. What is the IV?
    Treatment, the thing you are testing
  7. What is the DV?
    Changed by the IV
  8. What is a falsifiable hypothesis?
    Can be proved wrong
  9. What is a prediction?
    More specific statement about how research will be conducted
  10. What is the experimental group?
    Given the IV
  11. What is the control?
    Tested against the IV

    Positive- Something added to make sure the IV works 

    Negative- IV removed but everything else kept the same
  12. What is a placebo?
    Given in place of the IV
  13. What is sampling error?
    Amount of error in a data set
  14. What is the sample size?
    Number of people in the group
  15. What is statistical significance?
    Measures if the IV worked or not

    Reject or fail to reject null hypothesis
  16. What is scientific theory?
    An idea based on facts
  17. What is correlation?
    How closely related two things are
  18. What is the alternate scientific method?
    Asking a question, does not require you to have background knowledge on the topic
  19. When could you use the alternate scientific method?
    When you do not know what you are going to find (ex. looking for something in DNA) or when you do not know much about the topic you are researching
  20. What are things you should consider before taking the advice of a study?
    Who the sample was, the sample size, if they had any existing conditions
  21. What can the scientific method and science not explain?
    Religion and spirituality
  22. What is popular theory vs scientific theory?
    Popular theory is based on what most people think is true, scientific theory is a thought based on lots of evidence
  23. What does correlation does not equal causation mean?
    Just because the IV has an effect on the DV does not mean that it will be related in any way. You have to look at the study and the sample to see where the correlation is and if it was accidental or not
  24. What is unique about carbon and its bonding abilities?
    It forms four covalent bonds and can form carbon backbones
  25. What are "hydrocarbons", and why are they considered "hydrophobic"?
    Hydrated carbons 

    hydrophobic because they are non-polar and have no oxygens
  26. How might the carbonyl group affect the chemical behavior of the molecule they belong to:

    Hydrophilic, polar, might like to bond with water
  27. How might the amino group affect the chemical behavior of the molecule they belong to:
    • NH3
    • Weakly basic
  28. How might the hydroxyl group affect the chemical behavior of the molecule they belong to:
    • Polar 
    • R-OH-
    • Form hydrogen bonds
  29. How might the Sulfhydryl group affect the chemical behavior of the molecule they belong to:
    • R-SH 
    • Makes thiols 
    • Covalent bond to other functional groups
  30. How might the phosphate group affect the chemical behavior of the molecule they belong to:
    • PO4H2
    • Weakly acidic 
    • Form hydrogen bonds
  31. How might the carboxyl group affect the chemical behavior of the molecule they belong to:
    • R-COOH 
    • Weakly acidic 
    • Hydrogen bond to other functional groups
  32. What is condensation?
    • When water is removed from the polymer 
    • (water is a product)
  33. What is hydrolysis?
    • Water is added back in to make a polymer 
    • (Reverse equation of condensation)
  34. What are the building blocks for polysacchrides?
    Repeating units of simple sugars (usually glucose)
  35. What are the building blocks for triglycerides?
    Glycerol joined to three fatty acids
  36. What are the building blocks for proteins?
    Amino acids
  37. What are the building blocks for RNA?
    Ribose (Ribonucleic acid)
  38. What are the building blocks for DNA?
    Cytosine, guanine, thymine, and adenine
  39. What is RNA made up of?
    Ribonucleic acid
  40. What is DNA made of?
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  41. How are disaccharides formed from monosaccharides?
    • Two simple sugars linked together
    • 2 monosacchride rings joined by glycostic links
  42. How are polysaccharides formed from monosaccharides?
    More than two repeated links of simple sugars
  43. What are the location and/or functions chitin in biological systems:
    Found in fungi cell walls and some exoskeletons
  44. What are the location and/or functions of sucrose in biological systems:
    • Glucose and fructose
    • Found in small intestine
  45. What are the location and/or functions starch in biological systems:
    • Energy storage in plants 
    • Found in plant cells
  46. What are the location and/or functions of glycogen in biological systems:
    • Animal starch, stores energy 
    • Found in liver and muscles
  47. What are the location and/or functions of cellulose in biological systems:
    • Insoluble polysaccharide made of glucose 
    • Found in small intestine
  48. What are the location and/or functions of lactose in biological systems:
    • Glucose and galactose 
    • Found in small intestine
  49. What is the significance of alpha and beta linkages between glucose monomers? Which one can humans digest?
    Alpha- Hydroxyl group is on top of protein ring

    Beta- Hydroxyl group is on bottom of protein ring

    Humans can digest Alpha
  50. What roles do lipids play in biological systems?
    They are energy storage, hormones, structural cell compounds
  51. Compare the structure of saturated vs. unsaturated fats
    Saturated fats- maximum level of H+, no double bonds, straight 

    Unsaturated fats- carbon double bond, bent at double bond, not at maximum H+ capacity
  52. Contrast the structure of cis vs. trans double bonds in fatty acids. How do they affect the overall shape of the fatty acid? How does that affect the texture of the fat?
    Cis- H+ is located on same side of carbon double bond

    • Trans- double bond is rearranged
    • When double bond is lost, trans bond straightens the protein 
    • It makes the fat more soluble at room temperature by making it molecularly resemble a saturated fat
  53. Based on the structure of trans fats, why are they risky to consume?
    They can increase a chance of cardiovascular disease
  54. What structural features of lipids enable them to form membranes in water environments?
    • They're amphipathic and form lipid bilayers 
    • One end is hydrophilic, the other end is hydrophobic
  55. What roles do sterols play in biological systems?
    Cholesterol, reproductive hormones, bile salts, cortisol
  56. Describe the major functions of proteins.
    They express genes and are involved in all aspects of metabolism
  57. What is a peptide bond?
    A carbon- nitrogen bond between amino acids
Card Set
Bio test 1
Bio 1 test chapters 1-3