the study of spatial distribution of human & physical phenomenon on the surface of the earth
Does geography refer to any planet besides earth?
Is geography a social or physical science?
One of the only sciences that is both: you cannot separate physical landscape and people
When and why did rioting teenagers ransack and rob working-class neighborhood grocery stores in Buenos Aires?
2012: left 22 dead and more than 200 injured. Part of more than 50 riots worldwide between 2007 and 2014 where food was the principle issue
What are food riots in places like Buenos Aires a reflection of?
the increasing geographic interdependence of the world...partly the result of increasing food consumption in other parts of the world (especially China and India) where many have stopped producing their own food and have the cash to buy it
How has increasing meat consumption affected the world economically?
It has driven up demand for feed grain, and in turn driven up the price of grain everywhere
What has accelerated rising prices around the world?
Speculators in international commodity markets
Why are there concerns about the global energy crisis in relation to the rising prices of food?
High oil prices push up fertilizer prices, while the cost of transporting food from farm to market adds to food costs. Popularity of biofuels as an alternative to hydrocarbons is straining food supplies (especially in the US) where generous federal subsidies for ethanol have lured farmers away from growing crops for food
What has disrupted harvests in many countries?
Extreme weather events
What areas were affected by the prolonged droughts in 2013 and 2014?
Argentina, California, eastern Brazil, Texas, parts of the Mediterranean, and the Sahel region of Africa
What areas ere affected by catastrophic floods in 2013-2014?
Canada and Central Europe
What area was affected by severe hailstorms in 2013 to 2014?
What disaster affected the Philippines in 2013 and 2014?
A record breaking typhoon that killed more than 6,000 people
What is the focus of human geography?
recognizing and understanding the interdependence among places and regions, without losing sight of the uniqueness of each specific place
What is a "place"?
specific geographic settings with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes
What is a "region"?
territories that encompass many places, all or most of which share attributes different from the attributes of a different place
What makes maps so important to geographers?
They introduce geographer's ideas about the way that places and regions are made and altered
Why is the importance of geography becoming so widely recognized?
people everywhere are struggling to understand a world that is increasingly characterized by instant global communications, rapidly changing international relationships, unexpected local changes, and growing evidence of environmental degredation
When did College Board add geography to it's Advanced Placement exam?
Within the last 10 years
Why are employers coming to realize the importance of employees with a geographic background?
because they have expertise in geographical analysis and an understanding of the uniqueness, influence, and interdependence of places
What does geography provide through an appreciation of the diversity and variety of the world's peoples and places?
Because geography provides real opportunities not only to contribute to local, national, and global development but also to understand and promote multicultural, international, and feminist perspectives in the world
How does geography allow people to understand the intrinsic nature of the world?
It allows us to understand where we are both literally and figuratively because it provides knowledge of Earth's physical and human systems and of the inter-dependency of living things and physical environments which provides a basis for people to cooperate in the best interests of our planet.
How does geography capture the imagination?
It stimulates curiosity about the world and the world's diverse inhabitants and places. By obtaining a better understanding of the world, people can overcome close-mindedness, prejudice, and discrimination
What is a theme that runs through all of human geography?
An appreciation of the diversity and variety of peoples and places
What is human geography?
the study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people's relationships with their environments
How has National Geographic magazine become a venerable institution?
by bringing us monthly updates of the seemingly endless variety of landscapes and communities around the word through intriguing descriptions and striking photographs
How many people subscribe to National Geographic magazine?
More than 5 million households, representing about 19 million regular readers
Where may someone might find a National Geographic magazine who is not subscribed?
offices, lobbies, waiting rooms, or online
What is the conventional wisdom about American appreciation of other cultures?
that many Americans have little real appreciation or understanding of people and places beyond their own their own daily routines...not just a lack of knowledge about fundamentals of the world's geography but also the diversity and variety within the US
Where does the US land in terms of geographic literacy against Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and Sweden?
Although many Americans are fascinated by different places, what do they lack?
A systematic knowledge of those places
Why are places "dynamic"?
Because they have changing properties and fluid boundaries that are the product of the interplay of a wide variety of environmental and human factors
What makes places so fascinating for readers of NatGeo magazine?
The dynamism and complexity of different places
What does dynamism and complexity do for cultures?
It is what makes places so important in shaping people's lives and in influencing the pace and direction of change.
What do places do for people?
They provide the settings for people's daily lives and their social relations
What are "social relations"?
Patterns of interaction among family members, at work, in social life, in leisure activities, and in political activities --> it is in these settings that people learn who and what they are, how they are expected to think and behave, and what life is likely to hold for them
How do places exert a strong influence on people, for better or for worse?
On people's physical well-being, opportunities, and lifestyle choices
How do places contribute to people's collective memory?
They are powerful and emotional cultural symbols
How does the layering of meanings reflect the way places are socially constructed?
Places are given different meanings by different groups for different purposes. Places exist and are constructed by their inhabitants from a subjective point of view
True or False: Meanings given to a place may be so strong that they become a central part of the identity of the people experiencing them.
What is an "identity"?
The sense that you make of yourself through your subjective feelings based on your everyday experiences and social relations
*the difference between the way you see your neighborhood and the way an outsider sees your neighborhood
What are some examples of how specific places can provide preconditions for innovation and change?
Agricultural advancement (development of seed agriculture and the use of plow and draft animals that sparked the first agricultural revolution in the Middle East in prehistoric times)
New Modes of Economic organization: the high-tech revolution that began in Silicon Valley
Cultural Practices: punk movement in impoverished Britain
New Lifestyles: hippie movement in 1960s San Francisco
What does "spatial" mean?
Occupying space on earth
What does climatology study?
Long term weather patterns in he lowest layer of the atmosphere
What is "culture"?
What makes identifying groups different from each other...
Is culture biologically determined?
True or False: there is a limit to how many cultures you can identify with.
Provide an example of how distinctive characteristics can cause the same idea to be handled differently in different areas.
Rock and roll turned to reggae in Jamaica and banned in Iraq
How can communities challenge trends in globalization?
By establishing "free zones" ie. nuclear free-zones, GMO free-zones
What is the focus of physical geography?
the Earth's natural process and their outcomes, concerned with climate, weather patterns, landforms, soil formation, and plant and animal ecology
What is the focus of "human geography"?
the spatial organization of human activities and with people’s relation to physical environments insofar as they influence and are influenced by human activity
What is the focus of "regional geography"?
combines elements of both physical and human geography. Concerned with the way that unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes
What is the contribution of "human geography" to geography?
reveal how and why geographical relationships are important in a wide spectrum of natural, social, economic, political, and cultural phenomena
What is geographic fieldwork?
“surveying, asking questions, using scientific instruments to measure and record things), laboratory experiments and archival searches
What is "remote sensing"?
a collection of information about parts of the Earth’s surface by means of aerial photography or satellite imagery designed to record data on visible, infrared, and microwave sensor systems
What is visualization or representation?
(involves a variety of tools, including written descriptions, charts, diagrams, tables, mathematical formulas, and maps)
What is the objective of analyzing geographic data?
to discover patterns and establish relationships so that hypotheses can be established and models can be built
What are geographic "models"?
abstractions of reality that help explain the real world” → interpretive analysis and inductive reasoning, ethnographic research (the systematic recording of human cultures( and textual analysis)
What is a mega-region?
geographic, galaxy like structures of cities and their suburbs that grow and evolve into coherent geographic entities
How much economic output does the globe's 40 leading mega-regions produce?
2/3 of the world's economic output and nine in ten of its technological innovations,
Who wrote The Economy of Cities?
Jane Jacobs, urbanist
What did Jane Jacobs The Economy Of Cities claim?
That cities are big cauldrons of innovation, when diverse people live and work in close quarters they come up with new ideas that improve the productivity of existing industries and generate new ones
What is an "urban metabolism"?
the the activity or ability to innovate
How much are urban populations supposed to grow in in the next century? Where?
by 5 billion people...most in the urban areas of South East Asia and Africa
True or False: maps not only describe data, but also serve as important sources for data and tools for analysis
True or false: All maps are social products and generally reflect knowledge of the people who draw them up
What is in the design of maps:
What they include, what they omit, and how their content is portrayed and how it inevitably reflects the experience, priorities, interpretations, and intentions of the authors
What is "map scale"
the ratio between linear distance on a map and linear distance on Earth's surface usually expressed in representative fraction
Small scale (1/10,000,000) to large scale (1/10,000)
What is "culture"?
learned set of beliefs values, traditions, and customs of a population transmitted through various agents
What are "thematic maps"?
Maps that are designed to represent the spatial dimensions of particular conditions, processes, ore even events
What is an "isoline"?
A line (similar to a contour) on a map that connects places of equal data value (for example precipitation)
What is a "map projection"?
a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographic coordinates of features found on Earth's surface
What is a "Mollweide projection"?
A map projection where relative sizes are true, but shapes are distorted
What is a Mercator projection?
Compass directions between any two points are true, and the shape of landmasses are true but their relative size is distorted
What is an "azimuthal equidistant projection"?
Distances measured from the center of the map are true, but direction, area, and shape are increasingly distorted as the distance from the center point increases
What is a "Robinson projection"?
Distance, direction, area and shape are all distorted in an attempt to balance the properties of the map. it is designed purely for appearance and is best used for thematic and reference maps at the world scale
What is a "cartogram"?
The relative size of countries is based not on area but on the proportion of people with extremely low incomes. The deliberate distortion of the shapes of the continents dramatically emphasizes spatial variations...used in small-scale thematic maps...space is transformed according to statistical factors *with the largest mapping units representing the greatest statistical values
What does GIS stand for?
Geographic information systems
What is a GIS meant for?
software in GIS incorporates programs to store and access spatial data, to manipulate those data, and to draw maps
What is the primary requirement for data to be used in GIS?
the locations for variables (the characteristics under consideration are known)...locations can be annotated by x, y, and z coordinates of longitude, latitude, and elevation or by such systems as ZIP codes or highway mile markers
True or False: any variable that can be located spatially can be fed into a GIS
What is "data catching"?
putting information in the GIS system...the most time consuming component of the work
T or F: In Data using different systems of measurement, scales, and systems of representation must be integrated with one another changes must be tracked and updated
Where does most GIS advancement come from?
What can GIS calculate?
how to manage farmland, to monitor the spread of infectious diseases, to monitor the tree cover in metropolitan areas, to assess changes in eco systems, to analyze the impact of proposed changes to the boundaries of legislative districts, to identify the location of potential business customers, and to identify the location of potential criminals, to provide a basis for urban and regional planning
What is "geodemographic research"?
uses census data and commercial data (such as sales data and property records) about the populations of small districts in creating profiles of those populations for market research ie) credit score to see if you can get a mortgage
What is "spatial analysis"?
The arrangement as points, lines, areas, or surfaces on a map.
What are five concepts that are key to spatial analysis?
Location, distance, space, accessibility, and spatial interaction are five concepts that are key to spatial analysis
What do we mean when we say "location is often nominal"?
it is expressed solely in terms of the names given to regions and places (location can be used as an absolute concept, whereby locations are fixed mathematically through coordination of latitude and longitude
What is "latitude"?
refers to the angular distance of a point on Earth's surface, measured in degrees, minutes and seconds north or south of the equator (ie degrees and minutes) --> horizontal
What is longitude?
the angular distance of a point on Earth's surface, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds east or west from the prime meridian
What is a "meridian"?
lines of longitude called meridians run from the North Pole (latitude 90 degrees north) to the South Pole (latitude 90 degrees south)
What does GPS stand for?
Global positioning system
How many satellites does the GPS consist of that orbit the earth?
What do GPS satelites do?
31 satellites orbit the earth of precisely predictable paths, broadcasting highly accurate time and location information
Who owns GPS?
The U.S. government, but information transmitted by satellites is freely available
Name some other GPS systems:
European Union's "Galileo positioning system", India's Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System, China's Compass Navigation System
How precise are the most precise GPS receivers?
What has GPS done for collecting spatial data?
More accurate and efficient collection of spatial data
True or false: Location can be relative
What does "site" refer to?
the physical attributes of a location: its terrain, soil, vegetation, and water sources
What is "situation"?
refers to the location of a place relative to other places and human activities: accessibility to route ways or its nearness to population centers
Where is the prime meridian?
What ancient populations inhabited Greenwich, England according to fossils?
prehistoric, Roman, Saxon, and Danish settlements
Is Greenwich a UNESCO World Heritage site?
What city is known for being a major center for cable television and associated specialized companies and why?
Denver, CO because of it's high elevation
Why would one say "location has cognitive dimension"?
people have cognitive images of places and regions, compiled from their won knowledge, experience, and impressions
What are "cognitive images"?
(also refereed to as mental maps) psychological representations of locations that spring from people's individual ideas and impressions of these locations
What are cognitive images based on?
direct experiences, on written or visual representations of actual locations, on hearsay, on imagination, or on a combination of these sources
Are cognitive images fluid? Why?
Yes, because they depend a given individual's changing information and perceptions of the principal landmarks in their environment
What did King Charles start building in 1669 and continued throughout the eighteenth century?
A palace, which became the Naval Hospital
How is "absolute distance" measured?
Expressed in terms of physical measurements we may count in kilometers and/or miles
How is "relative distance" measured?
In terms fo time, effort, or cost
What is "cognitive distance"?
the distance that people perceive as existing in a given situation [based on people's personal judgement about the degree of spatial separation between points
Why is distances a fundamental factor in geography?
It determines real-world relationships
Who said: "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things"jQuery1101017496206306842854_1506207791633
What is the "friction of distance"?
A reflection of the time and cost of overcoming distance
What is the "distance-decay function"?
describes the rate at which a particular activity or phenomenon diminishes with increasing distance (the farther people have to travel, the less likely they are to do so)
What is "utility" of a particular location?
It's usefulness to a particular person or group...emphasis may be based on cost, profitability, prestige, security, or ease of mobility
True or false: people in most circumstances tend not to seek to maximize the net utility of location
Who coined the "Nearness Principle"?
What is the "nearness principle"?
People seek to:
1. maximize the overall utility of places at minimum effort
2. Maximize connections between places at minimum cost
To locate related activities as close together as possible
True or false: Space is measured as absolute, relative, and cognitive terms?
What is "absolute space"?
a mathematical space described through points, lines, areas, planes, and configurations whose relationships can be fixed precisely through mathematical reasoning
What is the conventional way to view space?
As a container defined by rectangular coordinates and measured in absolute units of distance
What is "topographical space?"
measured not in terms of conventional measures of distance, but by the nature and degree of connectivity between locations (ie Metro map systems)
What is "socioeconomic space"?
can be described in terms of sites and situations, routes, regions, and distribution patterns...in these terms spatial relationships are fixed through measures of time, cost, profit, and production as well as through physical distance...for human geographers, some of the most important aspects of socioeconomic space have to do mapping, analyzing, and understanding inequalities among places and regions
What is "cultural space"?
the space of people with common ties, described through the places, territories, and settings whose attributes carry special meaning for particular groups
What is "cognitive space"?
defined and measured in terms of people's values, feelings, beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts, and regions...cognitive space can be described in terms of behavioral space--landmarks, paths, environments, and spatial layouts
Why is distance an important influence on people's behavior?
Because it is a fundamental influence on the utility of locations
What is "accessibility"?
generally defined by geographers in terms of relative location: the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location in relation to other distances
Is distance the same as accessibility?
No, because it distance is a fundamental influence on the utility of locations, it is an important influence on people's behaviors
Why is connectivity an important aspect of accessibility?
Because contact and interaction are dependent on channels of communication and transportation: streets, highways, telephone lines, and wave bands [it is easier to get to cities with airports]
What are the most common functions of accessibility?
Economic, cultural, and social factors (having a hospital nearby is only helpful if you can afford to go there or if it is open when you are available to go there)
What is "spatial interaction"? Give examples:
shorthand for all kinds of movement and flows involving human activity (freight shipments, commuting, shopping trips, telecommunications, electronic cash transfers, migration, and vacation travel
What are the fundamental principles of spatial interaction?
Complimentary, transferability, intervening opportunities, and diffusion
What is "complementary" in reference to spatial interaction?
for interaction between two places, there must be a demand in one place and a supply that matches, or complements in the other. This comes from a combination of colonialism, imperialism, and sheer economic dominance on the part of the more developed countries, and where less powerful countries have found themselves with economies that directly complement the needs of more developed countries
examples: Shipments of sugar from Barbados to the United Kingdom
What is "economy of scale"?
Places, regions, and countries can derive economic advantages from the inefficiencies created through specialization, which allows for larger-scale operations...they are cost advantages to manufacturers in high-volume production: the average cost of production falls with increasing output
What are the 3 contributing factors to Complementarity (in relation to spatial interaction)?
1. variation in physical environments and resource endowments from place to place (Mediterranean beach resorts)
2. The International division of labor that derives from the evolution of the world's economic systems
3. Specialization and economies of scale
What is "transferability" in relation to spatial interaction?
depends on the frictional (or deterrent) effects of distance
What are the 2 factors transferability are based in?
the cost of moving a particular item (measured in real money and/or time) and the ability of the item to bear these costs (if something is too expensive to ship, then it cannot be sold in the area and does not have transferablity)
What can make transferability vary over time?
successive innovations in transport and communications technologies and successive waves of infrastructure development
What is "infrastructure development"?
Canals, roadways, harbor installation, roads, bridges, etc...new technologies and new or extended infrastructures alter the geography of transport costs and the transferability of particular things between particular places...as a result, the spatial organization of many different activities is continually changing and readjusting
What is "time-space convergence"?
The rate at which places move closer together in travel communication time or costs...results from a decrease in the friction of distance as space-adjusting technologies have brought places closer together over time
Provide examples of space-adjusting innovations:
Air travel and air cargo; telegraphic, telephonic, and satellite communications system; national postal services; package delivery services' and modems, fiber-optic networks, and electronic-mail software
What is most significant about the latest developments in transport and communication?
they are not only global in scope but also are able to penetrate to local scales
What is "intervening Opportunity"?
intervening opportunities are more important in determining the volume and pattern of movement and flows [people in Norway are more likely to vacation in Spain rather than Greece because it is closer/cheaper)
True or False: spatial interactions between an origin and destination will be proportional to the number of opportunities at the destination and inversely proportional to the number of opportunities at alternative destinations
Provide some examples of spatial diffusion:
disease outbreaks, technological innovations, political movements, and new musical fads all originate in specific places and subsequently spread through space and over time
What is "spatial diffusion?"
occurs as a function of statistical probability, which is often based on fundamental geographic principles of distance and movement..typically results in an S-curve
What is expansion diffusion (also called contagion diffusion?
A phenomenon spreads because of the proximity of carriers, or agents of change, who are fixed in their location. (example: diffusion of an agricultural innovation such as use of the hybrid seed stick)
What is "hierarchical diffusion" also known as (cascade diffusion)?
a phenomenon can be diffused fromone location to another without necessarily spreading to people or places in between (an example would be the spread of a fashion trend from large metropolitan areas to successively smaller cities, owns, and rural settlements)
Are expansion and hierarchical diffusion ever used together?
Yes, as different aspects of human interaction come into play in different geographic settings (for example, outbreak of communicable diseases)
What is the geographic equivalent of scientific classification?
Regionalization: with individual places or areal units being the objects of classification
What are "functional regions?" (sometimes referred to as "nodal regions")
regions that, while they may exhibit some variability in certain attributes, share an overall coherence in in structure and economic, political, and social organization
Who coined the "core-domain-sphere" model?
What is the core-domain-sphere model?
Donald Meining set out in his classic essay on the Mormon region of the US...in the core of a region the distinctive attributes are very clear' in the domain they are dominant but not to the point of exclusivity' in the sphere they are repesent but not dominant
What may generate strong feelings of regionalism and sectionalism that feed back into the process of place-making and regional differentiation?
People's own conceptions of a place, region, and identity
What is "regionalism"?
a term used to describe situations in which different religious or ethnic groups with distinctive identities coexist within the same state boundaries, often concentrated within a particular region and sharing strong feelings of collective identity...often involve a want for autonomy from a national state and the development of their own political power
What is "sectionalism"?
if feelings of regionalism develop into an extreme devotion to regional interests and customs, the condition is known as sectionalism
What is "irredentism"?
the assertion by the government of a country that in minority living outside its formal borders belongs to it historically and culturally (ie: Russia's claims on Russian-speaking enclaves in eastern Ukraine in 2014...irredentism can lead to armed conflict)
What are "landscapes"?
a comprehensive product of human action such that every landscape is a complex repository of society. A collection of evidence about our character and experience, our struggles and triumphs as humans. To better understand the meaning of landscape, geographers have developed different categories of landscape types based on the elements contained within them
What are "ordinary landscapes" also known as vernacular landscapes?
everyday landscapes that people create in the course of their lives together. From crowded city centers to leafy suburbs and quiet rural villages, landscapes are lived in an changed and influence and change the perceptions, values, and behaviors of the people who live and work in them
What are "symbolic landscapes"?
Represent particular values or aspirations that builders and financiers want to impart to a larger public
ex: neoclassical architecture along with the streets, parks, and monuments of the capital constitute a symbolic landscape intended to communicate a sense of power but also of democracy in its imitation of the Greek city-state)
Can landscapes become powerfully symbolic of national identity? Why is this important to nation-building?
Yes, nation-building depends heavily on stories of golden ages, enduring traditions, heroic deeds, shared hardships and dramatic destinies all located in traditional or promised homelands with hallowed sites and scenery (west ireland)
What is a "sense of place"?
the feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories they associate with a place and the symbolism they attach to that place and to the symbolism they attach to that place. It can also refer to the character of a place as seen by outsiders" its distinctive physical characteristics and/or its inhabitants
How does a sense of place form for insiders in reference to a sense of place?
Develops through shared dress codes, speech patterns, public comportment, etc.
What is a "lifeworld?"
the taken-for-granted pattern and context for everyday living through which people conduct their day-to-day life lives without conscious attention.
What is "intersubjectivity?"
shared meanings that are derived from everyday practice. Elements of daily rhythms (such as mid-morning grocery shopping with a stop for coffee, the aperetivo en rout fro work to school, and the after-dinner stroll)
What are the three places in "sense of place"?
3. Everywhere else: sidewalk cafes, pubs, post offices, drugstores, corner stores (accommodates "characters" and "regulars")
How may a sense of place develop?
Through familiarity with history and symbolism of particular elements of the physical environment, a mountain or lake, the birthplace of someone notable, the site of some particularly well-known event, etc)
How may a sense of place be evoked for outsiders?
Only if the local landmarks, ways of life, etc are so distinctive to provoke a significant common meaning for people who have no direct experience of them
What does "geographical imagination" allow us to do?
Understand changing patterns, processes, and relationships among people, places, and regions..the pace of change around the world increases to unprecedented levels
How can we prepare our geographical imagination to deal with aspects of spatial change?
By making a distinction between the general and the unique. This helps us account for geographical diversity and variety because it provides a way of understanding how and why one kind of change can result in a variety of spatial outcomes
What is a "kathoey"?
The Thai term for lady boys...prefer to recognize them as belonging to a third gender
Is culture static?
No, Culture is constantly evolving and adapting in a never ending process
What is a cultural group?
a group of people sharing a common set of beliefs, values, traditions, and customs → a group that sees itself as a group
True or False: all the groups we identify with, there is still variation within this identity group
What is a "cultural hearth"?
The origin point of a culture, where cultural beliefs/practices/customs originate, the source area of a culture (Mesopotamia/silicon valley)
What is a "cultural hearth"?
The origin point of a culture, where cultural beliefs/practices/customs originate, the source area of a culture (Mesopotamia and Silicon
Is ethnicity biological?
No, it is a human construct
Is there any correlation between phenotype and phenotype?
What is an "ethnic group"?
populations that feel bound together by a common origin and set apart from other groups by ties of culture, race, religion, language, or nationality
Based on a firm understanding by members of a group that they are fundamentally different from others who do not share their cultural heritage
People who share some prominent traits or characteristics, some evident physical or social identifications setting them apart
What is the difference between ethnic cleansing and genocide?
Ethnic cleansing is removing people from your space (wanting them to leave) whereas genocide means killing
What is "space"?
Space: an area of the earth’s surface that we know of but have no personal connection to
The first time you walk into a classroom, it starts off as space and when you get more comfortable it turns into place
What is a "place"?
Place: a place is a space that we have experienced that has been transformed from the unknown to known
A house can start as a space and turns into a place when we become familiar to it
You can know the Grand Canyon and have it become personal if you explore it and get to know it
What is Yu Fat Tan famous for?
“Place is security, space is freedom”
What is "innovation"?
creating new things, using old things in new ways, simplification of a process, the evolution of something → changes that bring about something new
What is "stimulus"?
innovation sparks new innovation
What are "push and pull" factors?
The factors that make us leave where we live and move somewhere else
How many AmerIndian languages are there in Native America?
What language is 2/3rds of scientific papers published in?
How did religion come about?
came about through cultural innovations and cultural constructs, it is NOT physical or biological. Text definitions a belief system and a set of practices that recognize the existence of a power higher than humankind Monotheism: one god Polytheism: many gods Hinduism can be monotheistic or polytheistic, it is up to you, you can believe in whichever structure you prefer
What is a potential risk of increased connectivity?
Corporations knowing more information about you, maybe more than you want them to know...also a larger risk in the differences between people who can afford "smart technology" and those who can't
What is "folk culture"?
Traditional practices of small groups, especially rural people with a “simple” lifestyle (our text) ⇒ simple not being insulting
What is "popular culture"?
viewed by some cultural geographers as the practices and meaning systems produced by large groups of people whose norms and tastes are often heterogeneous and change frequently, often in response to commercial products
True or false: Geographers focus on the interaction between people and culture and among space, place, and landscape
Who created the "Berkeley School" of cultural geography? What was he interested in?
Carl Sauer, trying to understand the material expressions of culture by focusing on their manifestations in the landscape
What is a "cultural landscape"?
a characteristic and tangible outcome of the complex interactions between a human group with its own practices, preferences, values, and aspirations and it's natural environment
What is special about Masai Village, Kenya?
it is a cultural landscape where the village is enclosed by thorny brambles and branches harvested from the surrounding area, within the enclosure the dwellings are arranged in a unique circular pattern with the animal pens in the middle of the settlement for easy observation by residents
How many properties have
How many locations have been accepted for UNESCO World Heritage status?
Why is Battier Village, Palestine?
It was one of the 20 sites added to the UNESCO world heritage sites
What is the UNESCO world heritage criteria?
1. Represent a masterpiece of human creative genius
2. Exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design
3. Bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has dissapeared
4. Outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates significant stages in human history
What is a major critique of Sauer's cultural landscape?
Duncan argues that it is "super organic" and that culture is a well that humans draw from, whereas most others (like the book) see culture as a set of meanings and practices that are produced as humans go about living their lives
What is the British term for understanding the human imprint on the landscape?
Who was H.C. Darby?
most famous practitioner of historical geography, attempted to understand "cross sections" or sequences of evolution, especially of rural landscapes
What is "Genre de vie"?
a key concept in Vidal de la Blanche's approach to cultural geography in France, referred to a functionally organized way f life characteristic of a particular culture group
What is the "Doomsday Book" and why is it important?
A historical document ordered by William the Conqueror in 1085 that listed his spoils of war. Important to geographers because it included names of landholders in each county, the manors they held and their values, the names of their subtenants, etc.
What was Vidal de la Blanche's main focus?
to study small homogeneous areas to uncover the close relationships that exist between people and their immediate surroundings...wrote about changes in the French regions based on industrialization, observing that regional homogeneity was no longer the unifying element
What are culture wars?
battles, rooted in ideology, religion, class difference, the social construction of racial, ethnic, and gender difference, over the meaning and structure of social relations, that mark contemporary society
What is a "rite of passage"?
acts, customs, practices, or procedures that recognize key transitions in human life ie: birth, menstruation, and other markers of adulthood such as sexual awakening and marriage
What is a "cultural complex"?
combination of traits characteristic of a particular group (based on culinary preferences, foods associated with holidays or special events, and activities such as toast
Who are the Tureg men in Niger?
Also known as Blue Men of the Sahara, because they wear distinctive blue robes and veils, women do not wear veils and men do when they reach maturity
What is a "cultural region"?
an area where certain cultural practices, beliefs, or values are more or less practiced by the majority of the inhabitence
What is a "cultural system"?
A combination of cultural traits: includes traits, territorial affiliation, and shared history as well as other, more complex elements such as language and religion...broad similarities at the national level and more particular geographic variation at the regional and local level where the local level may refer to a city, a neighborhood, or even a household
Give a few examples of social categories:
kinship, gang, generation, or some configuration of categories can figure more or less prominently, depends on geography
a relationship based on blood, marriage, or adoption also includes a shared notion of relationship among members of a group
a form of social identity created by groups who share a set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action
Define: "Cultural nationalism"
the belief that a nation shares a common culture, geographers have increasingly begun to ask questions about other forms of identity
consistently defined as the biological and physiological characteristics that differentiate males and females at birth, based on bodily characteristics such as anatomy, chromosomes, and hormones
the same reference books is a term that is meant to differentiate biology from the social and cultural distinctions between the sexes
How many gender categories did Facebook add in 2013?
Over 50 (58 total)
Recognition of the ways that different forms or systems of oppression, domination or discrimination overlap (black feminism)
How does gender affect class?
Poor women are among the most vulnerable and worse off in societies around the world...women's education is closely linked to the improvements in economic development in an area...educated women have less children
a socially created system of rules about who belongs to a particular group based upon actual or perceived commonalities (such as language and religion)
What is the gender gap in the US?
Women make 77 cents for every $1 a man makes
How much of the world's work do women do?
How much of food is produced by women worldwide?
How much income is earned by women worldwide?
How much property is owned by women worldwide?
How much National parlamentarians are women?
How many signatories to peace agreements are women?
Less than 3%
What percentage of China is Han? How many other ethnic groups are there?
91%, 55 ethnic groups
What were the casualties of the protests for Uyghur in the riots of China's Xinjang region?
156 people died and 1,400 were arrested
a problematic classification of human beings based on skin color and other physical characteristics
The practice of creating unequal castes based on the norm of whiteness, biologically speaking there is no such thing as race
Define "children's geography":
a focus of cultural geography on the space and place of the lives of youth and children...how children understand the world around them
Is childhood natural or constructed?
What is the actor-network theory (ANT)?
important influence of geography in the 21st century...views the world as composed of heterogeneous things" including humans and non-humans and objects [which have as much force as each other...humans are not superior]...family is a network and an actor (cellphones, the house, the dog are all important actors in the family structure)
What is non-representational theory (NRT)?
understands human life as a process that is always unfolding, always becoming something different
What scientist is famous for his work on non-representational theory?
Ben Anderson...used this theory to explore memory and music
What is "affect"?
emotions that are embodied reactions to the social and physical environment, also about the power of these emotions to result in or enable actions (the shivery feeling you get when you hear the national anthem or a song from your childhood)
Define "emotional geography":
how a place can elicit an emotion (the Holocaust Museum or like ground zero in NYC)
What is materialism in geography?
the material world and its objects and nonhuman entities are partially separate from humans and possess the power to affect humans (like seeing the flag raised at Ground Zero in NYC on 9/11 or statues in Barbados of slaves who escaped and rebelled)
What is the trade surplus in the US coming from the entertainment industry?
over $25 billion
How many books are written in English then translated to other languages?
over half, more than 25,000 titles
What percentage of girls surveyed about their bodies said negative view of their bodies had lead to suicidal thoughts?
How many Fijian girls admitted to purging as a form of weight loss after watching Western soap operas?
When did world music become very popular?
What is the UN CDPGE, when was it created?
2005: The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions ...a legally binding international agreement that ensures artists cultural professionals, practitioners, and citizens worldwide can create, produce, disseminate, and enjoy a broad range of cultural goods, services, and activities, including their own
What are cultural domains:
a. cultural and natural heritage (museums, historical places)
b. performance and celebration
c. visual arts and crafts
d. books and press
e. audio-visual and interactive meida
f. design and creative services
h. Sports and recreation
What is special about the Andowan people of the rainforest?
They have no concept of time or age
What is special about Nicaraguan Sign Language?
It was created by deaf children independent of adults and passed on to other children, growing with each generation
How many different languages are there in the world today?
Ranges from millions of speakers to less than one hundreds. Invented languages like from Game of Thrones have less than 30 speakers
How many languages are spoken in NYC?
Why is Garifuna special?
A fusion language: It is a language spoken mostly in modern day Honduras and Belize that came about as a shipwreck in present day Venezuela with mixes of indigenous languages and migrated around the Caribbean islands
How many language families are there? How many major language families are there?
90 language families, 6 major language families
What is the difference between language families, branches, and groups?
Families are collections of individual langauges believed to be related in their prehistoric origin (about 50 percent of the population speaks a language that bleongs to the Indo-European family), language branches are a collection of languages that possess a definite common origin but have split into different languages, and language group is a cluster of individual languages that are a part of the branch
What is a mother tongue?
A language learned from birth/first few years of their lives
What is linguistic drift?
Random changes in language, usually made by young people
What is the least changed language in the world?
languages that other people nearby can understand even if they don't speak it (Faroese, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish)
Most words disapear from the human vocabulary after how many years?
8000 to 9000 years
How many words have lasted 15000 years?
about a dozen
You, hear me! Give this fire to that old man. Pull the black worm off the back and give it to the mother. And no spitting in the ashes!....from languages that existed in places where people survived the last glacial period around 20,000 to 25,00 years ago
How many people in Germany speak German?
How many languages are spoken in India representing how many major branches?
1,600, representing 4 major branches
At the independence of India in 1947, what was the largest percentage of a language spoken in?
No more than 40% of the population spoke any single language
A common language among speakers whose native lanuages are different
How does language affect prospects?
If you only speak your dialect you will have less prospects than someone who speaks English or another more popular language
When was "ethnolinguistic vitality" coined? What does it refer to?
1977...refers to 3 interconnected and crucial aspects of language" status, demography, and institutional support
What is "cuneiform"?
The wedgeshaped letters used by Sumarians in ancient Iraq made of 1500 pictograms
Where were the first alphabets established?
Started by Sumerians, Egypt through hieroglyphs made it a teachable language...improved by Phoenician traders, (responsible for replacing pictographs with an alphabet of consents) that were easy to learn, write, and change...Greeks introduced vowels to the alphabet and the Latin alphabet is the same used today (didn't use J, U, or W)
How is grafitti important to the Syrian Revolution?
15 boys between 10 and 15 years old graffitied walls that said "the people want to topple the regime" it was said to spark the March 2012 Syrian Revolution...this lead to the boys being arrested and tortured by soldiers for anti-government speech
From School to Prison:
40% of students expelled from US schools are black
70% of students involved in inschool arrests refered to law enforcement are black or latino
3.5x black students are 3.5 times more likely to be suspended than white students
Blacks and Latinos are 2 times more likely to not graduate
68% of males in state and federal prison do not have a high school diploma
From Foster Care to Prison:
50% of children in the foster care system are black or latino
30% of foster care youth entering the juvenile system are placement related behavioral cases
25% of young people leaving foster care will be incarcerated within a fe years after turning 18
50% of young people leaing foster care will be unemployed within a few years after turning 18
70% of inmates in CA state prison are former foster care youth
How many juviniles who come into the court system are illiterate? how many adults in prison are illiterate?
85% of children, and 60% of adults
How many illiterate people are there worldwide? How many are women
776 million, 2/3rds are women
the practice of speaking in the lowest voice register to produce a popping or creaking sound at a very low frequency (Zoe Descchanell or Kim Kardashian)...85% of employers prefer you not do this
the belief that certain ritualistic acts will lead to a bestowing of material wealth (cargo)(Pacific Islands)