Pathophysiology Chapter 8

  1. Define Pathogen
    anything that causes infection
  2. Define Incidence
    number of new cases of an infectious disease in a given population
  3. Define Prevalence
    number of active cases of an infectious disease in a given population
  4. Define Endemic
    stable incidence and prevalence of an infectious disease in a given population
  5. Defeine Epidemic
    sudden increase in incidence of an infectious disease in a given population
  6. Define Pandemic
    spread of an infectious disease beyond continental border
  7. Define Colonization
    normal, harmless residence of local microorganism on mucous and cutaneous membranes
  8. Define Resident Flora
    live in or on the host and recolonize quickly if disturbed; symbiotic relationship with the host
  9. Define Transient Flora
    reside temporarily in or on the host
  10. Define Opportunistic
    infections from resident flora gone wild when the host's immune system is compromised
  11. Types of Infection
    • Opportunistic Infections
    • Virulent Infections
    • Nosocomial Infections
  12. What are Opportunistic Infections?
    host's immune system is compromised; resident flora overgrow or move into a new location in the body
  13. What are Virulent Infections?
    microorganism that is consistently capable of causing disease
  14. What is a Nosocomial Infection?
    an infection from a hospital or clinical situation. They may be opportunistic or virulent in nature.
  15. What are the types of Microorganisms?
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Fungi
    • Parasites
  16. How are Bacteria classified?
    • by motility
    • Gliding
    • Spirochetes
    • Mycoplasmas
    • Rigid
  17. What are the classifications of rigid bacteria?
    • Actinomycetes
    • Unicellular forms
  18. What are the classifications of unicellular rigid bacteria?
    • Intracellular obligate parasites
    • Free living bacteria
  19. What are the classifications of free-living bacteria?
    • Cocci --> round and immobile
    • Bacilli --> rod shaped and may be mobile
    • Spiral --> corkscrews
  20. How are free-living bacteria classified?
    • classified by their response to gram staining
    • Gram Positive --> retain dye, dark purple
    • Gram Negative --> resist stain, pink
    • Acid Fast --> resist decoloration, red
  21. What happens if bacteria get past the initial membrane defense and multiply and creat a colony in the host?
    • Acute inflammatory response
    • Phagocytic cells recruited
  22. What happens if bacteria get past the 1st response?
    bacteria will use the interstitial fluid, blood, and lymph networks to spread through the body
  23. What happens if bacteria gets to the lymph nodes?
    • Another attempt to clean them out
    • If these fail then clumps of bacteria begin to flood the bloodstream
  24. What are antibiotic?
    cultural mechanism for discouraging microorganisms.
  25. What are Viruses?
    • genetic parasites composed of DNA or RNA and a capsule
    • dependent on host cell for energy and for replication
  26. What are the 2 mechanisms for invasion of the host cell?
    • Adherence and endocytosis
    • Adherence and injection of genetic material
  27. What are the two ways for a virus to be released from a cell?
    • release by budding from the host cell , host cell is not destroyed --> birth
    • release by lysing the host cell, the host cell is destroyed -->scene from "Alien"
  28. What are the ways of classifying viruses?
    • Size
    • DNA or RNA
    • mode of replication
    • capsule structure
    • type of host cell
  29. How do DNA viruses replicate?
    • produce mRNA in the host cell nucleus and with the host cell's enzymes
    • host cell's machinery is used to translate the viral mRNA's
    • (herpes simplex)
  30. What are the two ways that RNA viruses replicate?
    • Straight-replicating
    • -->Positive Copy
    • -->Negavie Copy

    reverse transcriptase
  31. How does reverse transcriptase work?
    • converts the viral RNA chromosome into viral DNA
    • viral DNA is incorporated into the host cell's chromosome
    • Viral proteins are produced from viral mRNA using the host machinery
  32. How does positive copy RNA work?
    Postive copy RNA is used as a direct template to make viral proteins and complementary negative RNA
  33. How does negative copy work?
    converted into a complementary positive RNA which is used to produce viral proteins or progeny chromosome
  34. What are the treatments for viral infections?
    • self-limited
    • anti virals
    • natural
    • immunizations
  35. What are Fungi?
    • yeasts and molds
    • nonphotosynthetic, eukaryotic protists that exist everywhere
  36. What is good at cleaning up fungi?
    Phagocytes especially neutrophils and some monocytes and eosinophils
  37. What are the types of mycoses?
    • Opportunistic mycoses
    • Superficial mycoses
    • Subcutaneous mycoses
    • Systemic mycoses
  38. What is an opportunisitc mycoses?
    normal flora that become bothersome
  39. What are superficial mycoses?
    occur only on dead, keratinized tissue
  40. What are subcutaneous mycoses?
    occur in subcutaneous tissue due to trama
  41. What are systemic mycoses?
    usually caused by soil fungi that are inhaled
  42. What are the four types of parasites?
    • Protozoa
    • Nematohelminthes (round worms)
    • Platyhelminths (flatworms, tapeworms)
    • Arthropoda
  43. What is the chain of transmission?
    Reservoir --> Portal of Exit --> Mode of Transmission --> Portal of Entry --> Susceptible Victim
  44. What are things that help the pathogen enter the host?
    • Chemicals that promote adherence --> glycocalyx
    • Mechanical structures that promote adherence --> pili and fimbriae
    • Ability to attach to host proteins
    • Ablitlity to attach to rough surfaces
  45. What are things that help the pathogen get past the host's defenses?
    • Bacterial enzymes that dissolve host blood or connective tissue proteins
    • Encapsulation with a polysaccaride prevents fixation of complement and opsonization
    • Survival inside phyocytes
    • Endospore formation
    • Production of IgA protease
  46. What are the characteristics that harm or kill host cells?
    • bacterial toxins kill host cells and induce inflammation
    • -->Exotoxins
    • -->Endotoxins
  47. What are the host characteristics that affect infection?
    • Epithelial barriers
    • Nutritional status
    • Chronic Illness
    • Age
    • Immune Status
    • Poor Sanitation
    • Crowded living conditions
    • Improper handling of food
    • Climate/Seasonal patterns
    • Geographic location
  48. What are the stages of infection?
    • Colonization
    • Invasion
    • Multiplication
    • Spread
  49. What are the portals of entry for a pathogen?
    • Penetration
    • Direct Contact
    • Ingestion
    • Inhalation
  50. What are the stages in a disease course?
    • Incubation stage
    • Prodromal Stage
    • Acute Stage
    • Convalescent Stage
    • Resolution Stage
  51. What are the 3 lines of defense?
    • Physical Barriers
    • Inflammatory Response
    • Immune Response
  52. What are the physical barriers?
    • skin
    • mucous membranes of GI, GU, and respiratory tracts by action of pH and or resident flora
    • mucociliary blanket of respiratory passages
    • flushing of tears, urine, bowel evacuation
    • various substances in bodily secretions such as lysosomes in tears
    • ongoing phagocytosis
  53. What is the inflammatory response?
    • Mast cell degranulation --> blood vessel inflammatory responses; phagocytic action of granulocytes
    • fever -->heightened phagocytosis
    • Plasma protein systems, Complement cascade, coagulation cascade, Kinin System
  54. What is the immune response?
    • Immunoglobulins, and T cytoxic lymphocytes
    • Lymphocyte production of cytokines
    • Protection through humoral and cell-mediated immune response and the production of antibodies and memory cells.
Card Set
Pathophysiology Chapter 8
Infectious Process