DHE 112 Exam#1 Chapters 1-6

  1. 3 types of prevention?
    • primary
    • secondary
    • tertiary
  2. Examples of primary prevention methods?
    • • Oral evaluation
    • • Dental prophylaxis
    • • Fluoride as a preventive agent
    • • Dental sealants
    • • Xylitol
    • • Health education
    • • Health promotion
  3. Uses strategies and agents to prevent the onset of diseases, reverse the progress of disease, or arrest the disease process before secondary preventive treatment becomes necessary? This level is sometimes thought of as dental hygiene.
    Primary prevention
  4. Uses routine treatment methods to terminate a disease process and/or restore tissues to as near normal as possible?
    secondary prevention
  5. What level of prevention is sometimes thought of as dental hygiene?
  6. Uses measures necessary to replace lost tissues and rehabilitate patients to as near normal as possible?
    tertiary prevention
  7. Examples included in secondary prevention?
    • • Dental restorations
    • • Periodontal debridement
    • • Fluoride use on incipient caries
    • • Dental sealants on incipient caries (ART)
    • • Endodontics
  8. Examples included in tertiary prevention?
    • Prosthodontics
    • • Implants
    • • Oromaxillofacial surgery
  9. What level of prevention can be termed restorative care?
  10. This level can be termed reconstructive care.
    tertiary prevention
  11. _______ is method used to diagnose a condition.
    diagnostic modality
  12. ______ defines a continuum from a state of health to a state of illness and death.
    wellness scale
  13. _____ (incipient lesion)describes the early caries process on smooth enamel surface, before cavitation occurs, when the decalcificad area appears very white relative to surrounding healthy tissue.  These lesions are most often seen as extensive white lines across cervical areas of teeth. These lesions occur on proximal surfaces and are difficult to detect.
    white spot lesions
  14. How to diagnose incipient lesions?
    • explorer white spots
    • radiography
    • clinically
    • where there's plaque
    • blood
  15. Can one see a mesial distal contact for most patients?
  16. What does dental caries and perio share?
    bacterial plaque
  17. Methods to reduce occurrence of dental decay and periodontal disease?
    plaque removal interventions
  18. What are the stages of dental decay?
    • in situ
    • incipient lesion
    • overt
  19. The earliest stage of the plaque disease is ____ involvement, or involvement that does not extend beyond the site of origin.
    in situ
  20. second stage of plaque disease is _____ pre-caries lesion that exists before cavitation. "white spot". can be reminaralized
    incipient lesion
  21. The third stage of plaque disease is the ______ characterized by cavitation with bacterial infiltration. (irreversible)
    • overt
    • clinically evident
  22. Do all incipient lesions lead to an overt or cavitated lesion?
    Not all in situ lesions progress to the incipient lesion stage, nor do all incipient lesions progress to the overt stage of caries or periodontitis.
  23. How can someone achieve cultural competency throughout their lifetime?
    Continuing education
  24. What does CE do for someone in the field of dentistry?
    are some ways to pursue the process of cultural competency.
  25. What is one major benefit of cultural competence?
    to become aware of one' s biases and differences in one's own background to that of the client's cultural background.
  26. What does the learn model stand for?
    • Listen with sympathy and understanding
    • Explain your perception of the problem
    • Acknowledge and discuss diff and similarities
    • Recommend treatment
    • Negotiate agreement
  27. Does the LEARN model replace or augment interviewing of the patient?
    No, intended to supplement the process
  28. Should a dental provider avoid idioms
  29. What other types of questions should a dental provider use or avoid? Like open or closed ended questions
    Yes or no questions...encourage patients to ask questions
  30. What is culture defined as?
    is a conceptual framework that has relevance in health professions research, education and practice.
  31. Should dental providers be culturally comp and why
    culturally competent care is patient-centered care. It suggest the ability to effectively interact with clients to work together inn creating positive health outcomes. Decrease the likelihood of liability or malpratice claims.
  32. Which population is projected to grow the slowest/fasted
    • fastest Minorities (Hispanics)
    • slowest Non Hispanic/ white
  33. Know the concepts behind cultural comp/ confidencial
    The ethnocentric values of individualism and freedom motivate the practice of giving health info directly to patient.
  34. Know the concepts behind cultural comp/sensitivity
    The health professional who is not culturally sensitive may choose to view patient in a negative way.
  35. What s the annual manual provided by the ADA to provide codes/definitions of common dental procedures?
    • CDT 
    • current Dental Terminology
  36. What are dental indices?
    • A numerical value describing the relative status of a population on a
    • graduated scale with definite upper and lower limits, which is designed to
    • permit and facilitate comparison with other populations classified by the
    • same criteria and methods.
  37. What is the purpose of dental indices?
    • 1. To define the specific problem under investigation.
    • 2. To discover populations at high and low risk.
    • 3. To increase understanding of the disease process, leading to methods of
    • control and prevention .
  38. What is dental hygiene diagnosis(abbreviation)
  39. WHat are the stages of the process of dental care, and define
    • Assessment:Analysis of data to identify pt’s needs
    • Diagnosis: Pt strengths and weaknesses that dental hygiene intervention can improve
    • Planning:Establishing goals and how to achieve them
    • Implementation:Carrying out the established plan
    • Evaluation:Measurement of the achieved goals
  40. What is the breakdown of the basic dental hygiene appt(times)
    • RDH have 1 hour, which is really “50” minutes for each patient.
    • Assessment (15 minutes)
    • ▪ Health history, data collection, radiographs
    • Diagnosis/planning/implementation (30 minutes)
    • ▪ Diagnosis, treatment plan, patient instruction, instrumentation,
    • polishing, fluoride application
    • Evaluation/re-evalution (5 minutes)
    • ▪ Retreatment, therapeutic agents, dental examination if
    • necessary
    • Disinfection (10 minutes)
    • ▪ Break down unit, set up for next, reschedule patients
  41. What is the purpose of an evaluation phase
    • • Evaluation must be addressed at the beginning, since they
    • are the most important step to address the success of the
    • program.
    • • Ongoing revision may be necessary.
    • • Assess the desired outcomes of the programs.
    • • Always use baseline data to determine the effectiveness of
    • program.
  42. Who is responsible for educating patients in a dental office
    Dentist, dental hygienist, dental assistant
  43. ________ is associated with caries and gingivitis
    supragingival plaque
  44. _______ is associated with gingivitis and periodontitis
    subgingival plaque
  45. Whats the point of brushing your teeth
    Remove dental plaque and control formation
  46. How does plaque affect periodontal disease?
    Periodontal diseases arise because of complex changes in plaque ecology.
  47. Where is subgingival calculus derived from?
    forms from calcium phosphate and organic material derived from blood serum.
  48. What decreases the formation of calculus?
    several agents; dentifrices
  49. What is the mineral content of calculus both supra and sub
    • ▪ Hydroxyapatite
    • ▪ Brushits
    • ▪ Whitlockite
  50. Know the steps of dental caries formation
    • say a tooth that already has bacteria on its surface just had a sandwich or bagel pass by, all the enzymes breaking down that food for our normal digestive system are also being taken up by the bacteria. These bacteria metabolize the sugars and carbohydrates, and produce weak acids as a by-product. This acidic environment starts damaging the surface of the tooth by demineralization. As we spoke previously if there is more demineralization (anything lower than 5.5 pH will cause the tooth to eventually cavitate, creating even more room for the bacteria to proliferate since they have more surface area to attach to).
    • carrier state
    • incipient lesion
    • clinical lesion
    • advanced clinical lesion
    • *Incipient lesion (histologic change in enamel)
    • Progress of demineralization toward DEJ
    • Overt/frank lesion (actual cavitation of tooth surface)
  51. Know what the byproducts of microorganisms are
  52. aerobic?
    with air
  53. anaerobic?
    no air
  54. Know what the primary colonizer consist of? anerobic/vs aerobic, motile vs non etc
    • cocci, aerobic
    • Streptococcus sanguis
    • Neisseria and Rothia
  55. WHat is an acquired pellicle
    coating of salivary origin that forms on exposed tooth surfaces.
  56. What are the 2 types of adhesion methods for plaque
    • The initial bacterial attachment to the acquired pellicile is thought to involve physicochemical interactions between molecules or portions of molecules.
    • adhesions
    • calcium bridging
  57. What are the 4 conditions required for dental decay
    • For caries to develop, four conditions must be present simultaneously:
    • 1. susceptible tooth and host
    • 2. cariogenic microorganisms in a sufficient quantity
    • 3. frequent oral consumption of refined sugars (carbs)
    • 4. occurrence over a period of time
  58. Where do carious lesion occur?
    • 1. pit and fissure caries
    • 2. smooth surfaces caries
    • 3. root surface caries
    • 4. secondary/recurrent caries
  59. What is enamel composed of structurally?
    • The primary mineral is hydroxyapatite, which is a crystalline calcium phosphate.
    • ameloblast
  60. What does the stephan curve model represent
    The relationship between acid levels (pH) at the tooth surface and time following consumption of sugar.
  61. How do remineralization and demineralization relate to ph levels
    demineralization is caused by plaque acids that dissolve the tooth minerals making up the basic calcium, phosphate, and hydroxyl crystals of the enamel, dentin, and cementum. Remineralization requires availability of the same ions, preferably with fluoride which is chemically stronger ion than calcium.
  62. What is the difference between resting and stimulated salivary flow
    • resting emanates principally from minor salivary glands throughout the mouth throughout the day. pH and buffering are lower (more acidic)
    • Stimulates saliva is supersaturated with calcium and phosphate ions compared with the levels of these minerals in enamel
  63. Who is root caries more common in
    adults 60 years and older
  64. What are the 2 most common bacteria associated with dental decay
    • Mutans streptococcus (MS)
    • Lactobacillus species
  65. What are the 4 zones of incipient lesions?
    • 1. surface zone
    • 2. body of the lesion
    • 3. dark zone
    • 4. translucent zone
  66. What does CAMBRA stand for
    Caries Management by Risk Assessment
  67. What is the GCF and what does it contain, and what are its functions
    • In an inflamed disease state, fluid flows from the depth of the gingival sulcus the GCF (gingival crevicular fluid) is a transudate which contains a few cells and proteins as opposed to exudates, which are inflammatory in nature.
    • helps clear bacteria from gingival sulcus, vehicle for leukocytes, complement, antibodies, and assorted enzymes that help protect enamel and periodontium from bacterial attack.
  68. What is the concept behind the specific plaque hypothesis vs nonspecific
    it simply relates periodontal disease to the overall amount of plaque present. plaque increase= inflammation and disease increase
  69. What bacteria are associated with chronic periodontitis disease
    • Aggregatibacters actinomycetemcomitans (AA)
    • Porphyromonas gingivalis 
    • Prevotella intermedia
  70. How many different bacteria inhabit oral cavity?
  71. What is the progression of gingivitis and periodontitis
  72. sWhat’re the characteristic of aggressive periodontitis
    • 1. microbial deposit accumulation that is inconsistent with the severity of the disease
    • 2. advancement of loss of attachment and bone loss that can be self-arresting
Card Set
DHE 112 Exam#1 Chapters 1-6
DHE 112 Exam#1 Chapters 1-6