Practice Test 1 Human Physiology

  1. A protein is found in blood that is secreted by the pituitary gland and acts on the testes, the protein is classified as a/an?

    D. Hormone
  2. An enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation of a protein is called a? An enzyme that catalyzes dephosphorylation of a protein is called a?

    c. Phosphatase: kinase
    d. ligand: active site
    A. Kinase: Phosphatase
  3. Which is Not true regarding prostaglandins?

    D. NSAIDs stimulate the synthesis of prostaglandins.
  4. In response to falling blood pressure, the nervous system will stimulate the heart to pump harder and increase blood pressure. This is an example of?

    A. Extrinsic regulation to accomplish negative feedback
  5. A chemical messenger is released by a cell within the thyroid gland and binds to receptors on other thyroid cells and to receptors on itself. This chemical messenger would be considered?

    E.   both C & D are correct
  6. Which of the following statements applies to paracrine regulation?
    a. Paracrine chemicals are always released directly into the bloodstream.
    b.Prostaglandins are paracrine chemicals
    c. Paracrine chemicals are released by cells in a tissue and act on cells in the same vicinity

    d. A & B

    e. B & C
    e.  both B & C
  7. The hormone insulin causes the transport of glucose into body cells. Its secretion is controlled by a negative feedback system. Which of the following is most likely to be correct?

    Increase BGC further
    B. An increase in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion which will, in turn, lower the blood glucose concentration
  8. Homeostasis

    C. Both  B & C
  9. When a person cuts herself, she has clotting factors in her blood that will be released continuously in an increasing cascade until her blood clots and stops the bleeding, what mechanism caused her blood to clot?

    E. Positive feedback
  10. Which of the following can be catabolized to produce ATP by cellular respiration?

    D. All of the above
  11. Which of these cell membrane transport mechanisms is subject to saturation limits?

    D. Facilitated Diffusion
  12. Which of the following would not increase the rate of simple diffusion across the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane?

    A.  Greater number of protein carriers
  13. Which substance could cross the plasma membrane directly through the lipid portion?
    a. O2 (Oxygen)
    b. Glucose

    C. Na+
    d. The protein insulin
    e. An Amino Acid
    a. O2 (Oxygen)
  14. What is the electrochemical gradient for Na+?

    E. Both A & C
  15. Which of the following types of transport is involved in the transepithelial transport of Na+ from the lumen of the intestine into the bloodstream?

    • E. Both A & C ( Active Transport of Na+
    •  Diffusion of Na+ through a channel)
  16. Predict the effect of placing an RBC in Pure H20

    C. Swelling and potential lysis
  17. Which of the following would decrease the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?

    C. Increase the concentration of product
  18. Consider the following reaction: C02 + H20<>H2C03 <> H2C03<>H+ + HC03- When a tissue becomes more active, C02 increases due to the C02 production in?

    D. Mitochondria; decreases
  19. Which of the following would increase the saturation rate for an enzyme-catalyzed chemical reaction?

    All of the above
    B. Increase Enzyme Concentration
  20. Which of the following examples of transport does not require a carrier protein

    E. Neither B or D requires a carrier protein
  21. Place the number of the components of a reflex arc in the correct order
    (1) Effector
    (2) Receptor
    (3) Afferent pathway
    (4) Stimulus
    (5) Integration center
    (6) Efferent pathway

    • (B) 4,2,3,5,6,1
    • 1. Stimulus
    • 2. Receptor
    • 3. Afferent Pathway
    • 4. IntegrationCenter
    • 5. Efferent Pathway
    • 6. Effector
  22. The process of producing glucose from amino acids is termed

    A. gluconeogenesis
  23. Of the gradients listed below, which is the most accurate description of the force that determines the movement of ions across the membrane at resting membrane potential

    B.  Electrochemical gradient
  24. In facilitated diffusion, a molecule is moved

    D. down its concentration gradient with the assistance of a protein carrier molecule, and no ATP is required
  25. Which of these terms describes the variable binding of multiple substrates to an enzyme's active site?

    C. Substrate specificity
  26. Ammonia is:

    E. Both B and C

    • processed by the liver to a less toxic compound.
    • a waste product of protein metabolism
  27. Glycogenesis refers to the synthesis of__ and occurs in__?

    B. Glycogen; the liver
  28. Long-term exposure to high levels of chemical messenger will__ the receptors for that chemical messenger on the target cell?

    E. down regulate
  29. Which of the following statements regarding the active transport of substances across cell membrane is correct?

    D. all the above
  30. When an enzyme's shape, and therefore its activity is controlled by a ligand loosely and reversibly binding at a regulatory site, it is called?

    C. allosteric regulation
  31. Which of the following statements about the transepithelial transport of glucose with sodium(as it is absorbed from the lumen of the intestine to the bloodstream) is true?

    D. glucose and sodium both move into the apical surface of the cell
  32. 32.which of the following statements about the Na/K pump is false?

    B. it transports Na and K in a 3:1 ratio
  33. Which of the following examples of transport requires a carrier protein?

    E. both A and C require carrier protein
  34. for an action potential to occur:

    be able to identify action potential diagram
    D. all of the above are correct
  35. Identify the type of channels involved in Phase (1)?

    A. open voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels
  36. Identify the type of channels primarily involved in phase (2)?

    D. open voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels
  37. In a neuron, an action potential originates at the____ and travels along the axon until it reaches the____

    D. axon hillock, axon terminal
  38. Hypokalemia will result in

    • D. Both B and C
    • (hyperpolarization at rest. difficulty achieving threshold)
  39. Choose the most likely voltage to CLOSE the voltage-gated Na channels in the axon of the neuron.

    B. 30mV
  40. How can action potentials relay information about the intensity of a stimulus, such as distinguishing between a loud and soft sound?  a. due to the frequency of action potential
    b. due to the magnitude of each action potential
    c. due to the summation of several action potentials
    d. due to electronic conduction
    e. due to the increasing intensity of graded potentials
    a. due to the frequency of action potential
  41. In myelinated axons, voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels would be concentrated in what area?

    C. nodes
  42. Which of the following is responsible for restoring the resting electrical gradient (polarized nature) of the plasma membrane after the depolarization phase of an action potential?

    C. the opening of voltage-gated K+ channels
  43. The absolute refractory period of a neuron has primarily to do with __

    A.   the status of the voltage-gated sodium(Na+) channels
  44. Opening gated Na+ channels in a cell membrane would result in

    E. Both C and D are true
  45. What type of ion channels are responsible for establishing the resting membrane potential of a cell?

    A. leak channels
  46. If the graded potential is at or above threshold once it reaches the of the neuron, an action potential will be generated.

    d. nucleus
    C. axon hillock
  47. Which disorder will cause swelling of brain cells, leading to erratic behavior?

    A. hyponatremia
  48. Which of these is most likely to be responsible for a hyperpolarizing graded potential in a cell?

    D. Ligand-gated potassium(K+) channels
  49. The cell would be in the relative refractory period when?

    A. the voltage-gated sodium (Na+) gates are open
  50. A subthreshold stimulus will not generate an action potential, but a supra-threshold stimulus does generate an action potential. This is an example of?

    D. the all or none principle
  51. Movement of what ion is responsible for ever " D" in this figure above?
    a. sodium (Na+)
    b. potassium (K+)
    c. chloride(Cl-)
    d. calcium (Ca)
    e. Phosphate (P04-)
  52. Action Potentials can be either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing?

    a. true 
    b. false
    b. false
  53. When a tissue encounters low oxygen levels, cell within the tissue release chemicals that cause local arteriole dilation. This is an example of intrinsic regulation to accomplish negative feedback?

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  54. The primary source of negative charges in the intracellular fluid is presence of chloride ions?

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  55. Increasing the concentration of substrate for an enzyme catalyzed reaction will increase the saturation rate?

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  56. In the absence of the Na+/K+ pump, the resting membrane potential of a cell would eventually stabilize at (0) mV?

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  57. substrate specificity implies multiple possible substrates?

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  58. Intracellular and extracellular fluid the have the same ion concentration?

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  59. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell?

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  60. Hypokalemia will stop the heart due to the inability of cardiac muscle to repolarize after an action potential

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
Card Set
Practice Test 1 Human Physiology
Chater 1 to chapter 7