Chapter 14/15 Test

  1. The central nervous system develops from what germ layer?
  2. What does the brainstem and diencephalon consist of?
    • Medulla, pons, and midbrain for brainstem
    • thalamus hypothalamus and epithalamas for diencephalon
  3. What’s the difference between the cranial dura mater and the spinal dura mater?
    Cranial has two layers periosteal and meningeal and spinal has just one, dura mater
  4. Which ventricles are located in the cerebral hemispheres?
    Lateral ventricles
  5. Know the passage of CSF through the ventricles and the brain
    Lateral to 3rd ventricle to interventricular to cerebral aqueduct to 4th ventricle
  6. What are arachnoid villi?
    Finger like extensions into the venous sinuses and absorb csf and return it to choroid plexus (choroid plexus make csf, arachnoid villi absorb csf)
  7. What are the colliculi involved in?
    Visual tracking of object and turning the head towards visual and auditory stimulus
  8. What is the role of the thalamus?
    Receives most sensory input entering brain
  9. The ability to form words is located in __________________ area
    Broca’s area
  10. Damage to which nerve affects the digestive system?
    Vagus nerve
  11. Know epidural, subdural, sub-arachnoid space
    Above the dura epidural, beneath the dura subdural common site for subdural hematoma, beneath the arachnoid mater subarachnoid space csf flows
  12. Which nerve controls facial movement?
    Facial nerve
  13. Which nerve is responsible for sensations from the face?
    Trigeminal nerve muscles of mastication
  14. Know that damage to the vagus nerve can cause death
    Because it innervates the heart
  15. Know the brain waves and when they appear
    Alpha waves are awake eyes close, beta waves eyes open and involved in mental activity reading writing, theta waves appear in brain disease and in children, delta appear in sleep and those with brain damage
  16. What are the functions of the basal nuclei?  Do they help control muscle movements?
    Concerned with making movement smooth
  17. Damage to the _________________ can cause problems with memory
    hippocampus which means sea horse
  18. A type of disabling senile dementia is called ____________________   __________________.
    Alzheimer’s disease
  19. In a spinal tap, where is the needle inserted, in what space?
    Subarachnoid space L3-L5
  20. If CSF can’t get out of the third ventricle, what passageway might be blocked?
    Cerebral aqueduct
  21. Know the functions of the hypothalamus
    Thirst, hunger, temperature regulation, and major control and integration center of the ANS
  22. Where does the trigeminal nerve arise from?  Where is its nucleus located?
    Pons, nucleus is located
  23. What region of the brain is associated with fear?
  24. Why do post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers have short axons?
    Because the ganglion is located near on or the effector
  25. Know the 2 main neurotransmitters of the ANS
    ACh and norepinephrine
  26. Are sensory neurons divided into somatic and autonomic?
    No, the motor is divided into that
  27. How many synapses between a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle it innervates?
  28. Do preganglionic neuros secrete Norepinephrine?
    No, they secrete ACh
  29. The lateral horn of thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae contains what cell bodies?
    Preganglionic sympathetic neurons
  30. Where are the terminal ganglia located in the parasympathetic division?
    Near the effector or on the effector
  31. What ganglia is associated with the oculomotor nerve?
    Ciliary ganglia
  32. Know cholinergic and adrenergic neurons and what they secrete
    Cholinergic secretes ACh, adrenergic secrete norepinephrine
  33. Know adrenergic and cholinergic as well as muscarinic receptors.
    adrenergic receptors bind NE & E and have two classes alpha 1 and beta 1 cholinergic located in ganglia specifically on the post ganglionic neuron, muscarinic receptors are located on all of the effectors of the parasympathetic division
  34. Are all skeletal muscle receptors nicotinic?
  35. Can the ENS function independently of the CNS?
  36. What is from the CNS?
  37. What is from the PNS?
  38. What does the epithalamus do?
    consist of pineal gland that secretes melatonin
  39. What is the superficial layer of the cerebellum?
    cerebellar cortex
  40. The deepest grooves between folds are called?
  41. The shallower grooves between folds are called?
  42. Association tracts?
    conduct nerve impulses between gyri in the same hemisphere
  43. Commissural tracts?
    conduct nerve impulses from gyri of one cerebral hemisphere to another hemisphere
  44. Projection tracts?
    conduct nerve impulses from the cerebrum to lower parts of the CNS
  45. Somatic nervous system is what?
    voluntary, one way and skeletal
  46. Autonomic nervous system is what?
    involuntary, two way, cardiac
  47. Alpha 1
    generally produce excitation
  48. Beta 1
    cause inhibition of effector tissues
  49. What is an agonist?
    is a substance that binds to and activates a receptor, in the process of mimicking
  50. What is an antagonist?
    is a substance that binds to and blocks a receptor
  51. Where are the four ventricles located?
    1 and 2 are inbetween the hemispheres which are called lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle is between right and left halves of thalamus, 4th ventricle is between brainstem and cerebellum
  52. Infundibilum
    connects the pituitary to hypothalamus
Card Set
Chapter 14/15 Test