Body Tissues Quiz 2

  1. four types of connective tissue
    • Connective tissue proper
    • Cartilage  
    • Bone
    • Hematopoetic tissue
  2. Types of connective tissue proper (5)
    • Loose (areolar) CT
    • Adipose tissue
    • Reticular tissue
    • dense irregular CT
    • dense regular CT
  3. Functions of the CT proper (6)
    • Supports binds and anchors cells and tissues
    • gives flexibility to tissues
    • resists tensile forces
    • Organ capsules
    • medium for exchange of nutrients, gas, and waste 
    • Protection (foreign/infectious agents, padding)
  4. What is the problem in ehlers-danlos syndrome
    defected collagen structure--skin is very stretchy
  5. Two components of CT
    • cell
    • extracellular matrix
  6. Two portions of the extracellular matrix and function
    • Fibers (scaffolding)
    • Ground substance (filler)
  7. Most common cells of the CT and are responsible for the production of the extracellular matrix 

    These cells are also important in repair and healing--they proliferate and cause new collagen to form
  8. cells of CT that store lipids (as one large lipid droplet), insulation and protection, and secrete leptin (hormone that signals satiety)
    Adipocytes (fat cells)
  9. cells of CT that are large round cells with a central nucleus and dark-staining basophilic granules in the cytoplasm
    Mast cells
  10. What do the granules in mast cells contain?
    Histamine and heparin (involved in the inflammatory response and dilation--prompted to degranulate under certain conditions )
  11. Cells of CT that are phagocytic, antigen-presenting cells (can sometimes have multi nuclei)
  12. Chronic inflammatory cells that deal with immunity

    One has a soccer ball looking nucleus that is pushed to one side 

    One has a dark staining nucleus
    Plasma cells

  13. a gel-like substance that binds cells and fibers
    ground substance
  14. What are the three things in the ground substance that when added with water give it the gel like substance
    • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) proteoglycans 
    • glycoproteins
  15. Extracellular tissue fluid that diffused through and carries nutrients and waste

    Fills in the gaps between scaffolding (fibers)
    Ground substance
  16. Three major types of CT fibers
    • Collagen
    • Elastic
    • Reticular**

    **technically a subtype of collagen fiber
  17. most abundant type of CT fiber, composed of staggered arrangement of tropo___* protein

    Tropocollagen protein
  18. What is the periodicity of collagen?
    67 nm
  19. Type of collagen that is most abundant and strong
    found in: CT proper, bone, fibrocartilage, dentin and cementum
    Type I
  20. Type of collagen found in:
    Hyaline and elastic cartilage (two most abundant types)
    Type II
  21. Type of collagen consisting of reticular fibers
    Type III
  22. type of collagen that is a component of the basal lamina of the basement membrane
    Type IV
  23. Type of collagen that is the anchoring fibrils of the basal lamina
    Type VIII
  24. What is a fibroma?
    A ball of collagen that is formed on the occlusal line in the buccal mucosa and due to the trauma in that are the fibroblasts go crazy and lay down a lot of collagen
  25. Type of CT fiber that is thinner than collagen type I  and forms a delicate supportive web (to support cells that are stuck together and not joined by a junctional complex

    Found in the: bone marrow, lymph nodes liver, spleen

    Pattern resembles a spider web or the pattern of a giraffe
    Reticular fibers

    Type III collagen
  26. Type of CT fiber that is a thin branching fiber and composed of ____ protein** and microfibrils 

    Abundant in walls of some vessels, lungs, bladder, skin
    Elastic fibers (highly elastic)

    **elastin protein
  27. Image Upload 1
    Label from top left to bottom then to top right to bottom 
    What is the white space?
    • Mast cells
    • Fibroblasts
    • Collagen fibers
    • Plasma cells
    • Elastic fibers
    • Small Lymphocytes
    • Capillary with erythrocytes
    • Large lymphocytes 
    • Mast cell
    • Elastic fibers
    • plasma cell
    • Macrophage with ingested particles

    It is filled with ground substance
  28. Image Upload 2
    Elastic Stain (elastic fibers)
  29. Types of CT proper (4)
    • Loose (areolar) CT
    • Reticular tissue
    • Dense irregular CT
    • Dense regular CT
  30. Two subtypes of loose CT
    • Areolar
    • Adipose tissue
  31. found in many areas throughout the body
    Loose, irregular arrangement of cells and fibers with abundant ground substance and water
    Loose CT
  32. fewer fibers (less collagen visible), more ground substance

    more fibers (collagen very visible), less ground substance
    • Loose arrangement
    • Dense arrangment
  33. Image Upload 3
    Loose CT
  34. Image Upload 4
    Adipose tissue
  35. Image Upload 5
    Reticular CT

    With silver stain (need special stain to see this)
  36. thick collagen fibers, haphazardly arranged, elastic and reticular fibers are also present

    Resists forces from different directions, found in dermis (skin) and organ capsules
    Dense irregular CT
  37. parallel arrangement of densely packed collagen fibers (little ground substance)

    Resist tensile forces
    Found in tendons and ligaments
    Dense regular CT
  38. Ligaments join
    bone to bone
  39. Tendons join
    Muscle to bone
  40. Supportive tissues, ECM predominates (2)
    Cartilage and bone
  41. semi-rigid, provides support, acts as a shock-absorber
  42. Two cell types in cartilage
    • Chondroblast 
    • Chondrocytes
  43. Derived from mesenchymal cells that lay down cartilage matrix

    --blast= forming something or a less mature form of a cell type
  44. Once the cartilage matrix becomes entrapped in the lacunae they are

    Mature chondroblasts
  45. ____ and ____ both originate from mesenchymal cells
    • Fibroblasts 
    • Chondroblasts

    **therefore they are very closely related
  46. cellular layer surrounding the cartilage
    Inner layer of the perichondrium is chondrogenic (chondroblsatic)
    Outerlater is Fibroblastic
    Perichondrium in cartilage
  47. Abundant and highly hydrated extraceullular matrix in cartilage ( two parts)
    • Fibers: collagen (type I or II) and/ or elastic fibers
    • GAGs: Chondoitin-4-sulfate and chondrotin-6-sulfate
  48. What is Chondoitin-4-sulfate and chondrotin-6-sulfate
    hyaluronic acid + GAGs from large negatively-charge proteoglycans
  49. What are GAGs sometimes referred to as?
  50. adhesive glycoprotein in cartilage that helps anchor cell and fibers to matrix
  51. True/False: cartilage is a vascularized tissue

  52. True/False: since cartilage is avascular it has very limited ability to repair itself after
  53. True/False: nutrients and waste diffuse through matrix of cartilage
  54. Image Upload 6
    Four chondrocytes sitting in their own respective lacunae
  55. Three types of cartilage: extracellular matrix
    • Hyaline (type II collagen fibers)
    • Elastic (type II collagen and elastic fibers)
    • Fibrocartilage (type I collagen)--looks like dense regular CT and has the same type of cartilage)
  56. What is the difference between of the nuclei of fibrocartilage and Dense CT
    fibrocartilage: (rounded and plump) 

    dense CT: spindle shaped
  57. Image Upload 7
    • Hyaline cartilage (chondrocytes in lacunae)
    • Elastic cartilage (chondrocytes in lacunae)
    • Fibrocartilage chondrocytes in lacunae)
  58. Most common type of cartilage 
    Found in: articular surfaces of bones, rib cartilage, trachea, and bronchi, larynx, nose
    Also provides the framework for endochondral ossification
    Hyaline cartilage
  59. What is endochondral ossification?
    It occurs in long bones and as the hyaline cartilage forms and grows it is replaced by bone and then it keeps advancing until growth stops
  60. Where is hyaline cartilage found? (6)
    • Articular surfaces of bones
    • Rib cartilage
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Larynx
    • Nose
  61. Image Upload 8
    Hyaline cartilage matrix, developing bone
  62. similar to hyaline cartilage, more flexible

    Locations: ear and epiglottis
    Elastic cartilage
  63. Dense, type I collagen
    Paralel arrangment (absorbs shock, resists compession)
    Chondrocytes more flatted but STILL round compared to fibroblasts
    No perichondrium
    Location: intervertebral discs, TMJ
  64. Locations where fibrocartilage is found
    Intervertebral discs, TMJ
  65. Where is elastic cartilage found
    Epiglottis and ear
  66. Image Upload 9
    Fibrocartilage (disc)
  67. Bone is composed of (3):
    • Cells
    • Type 1 collagen fibers
    • extracellular matrix that becomes mineralized
  68. Cells of the bone:
    Osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
  69. What is unique about bone that is unlike other tissue we talked about
    It is vascular tissue
  70. What is the vascular system in the bone
    Haversian canal system
  71. Bone is covered by:
  72. Functions of bone (4)
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Calcium storage
    • Hemopoiesis--blood cell production
  73. Come from mesenchymal cells and rim the bone and deposit bone/collagen matrix
  74. Mature osteoblasts, located within lacunae (isolated from neighboring cells--not in clusters like with chondrocytes)
    Branched (allows communication)
  75. True/False: since bone is very active you may see both osteoblasts and osteocytes at the same time
  76. Macrophage-type cells (resorbs bone)
    Different origin
    Reside in Howship lacunae (enclave in the bone where it sits)
  77. connective tissue found in ligaments and tendons
    Dense regular connective tissue
  78. True/False:Fibroblasts have a perichondrium
Card Set
Body Tissues Quiz 2
Exam 1 Material