DCASE - Unit 5 - Fire Fighting

  1. What are the four classes of fire? What are the characteristics?
    • 1. A - Involves wood and wood products, cloth, textiles, and fibrous materials, paper and paper products. Leaves an ash and has white smoke.
    • 2. B - Flammable and combustible liquids. Has black smoke.
    • 3. C - Energized electrical fires. Has white smoke.
    • 4. D - Combustible metals such as magnesium and titanium.
  2. What are some steps to prevent fires?
    • 1. Good housekeeping.
    • 2. Proper stowage of flammables/explosives.
    • 3. Fire Marshall Program.
    • 4. General maintenance.
    • 5. Watch Stander training.
    • 6. DC Organization training.
    • 7. All Hands training.
  3. What are the objectives of a DC Organization?
    • 1. Preliminary actions taken to prevent damage.
    • 2. Minimize and localize damage.
    • 3. Restore to use.
  4. What is the definition of a Flash Point?
    The lowest temperature at which a substance gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture. Usually not enough to sustain combustion.
  5. What is the definition of Fire Point?
    A temperature slightly above flash point that allows for sustained combustion.
  6. What is the definition of Ignition Point?
    Minimum temperature at which self-sustaining combustion occurs without an external ignition source.
  7. What's the difference between the Fire Triangle and Fire Tetrahedron?
    Fire Triangle is what's required for fire to start (fuel, oxygen, and heat) whereas the Fire Tetrahedron adds the Uninhibited Chain Reaction and details what's required for a fire to sustain itself.
  8. What is the cycle of a Self-Sustaining Reaction?
    • 1. Burning vapor produces heat.
    • 2. Heat releases and ignites more vapor.
    • 3. Burning vapor produces more heat. 

    Heat control is as important as flame control; particularly as the fire is getting out of hand.
  9. What are the stages of a fire?
    • 1. Growth Stage
    • 2. Rollover Stage
    • 3. Flashover Stage (1100 deg F)
    • 4. Fully Developed Fire Stage
    • 5. Decay Stage
  10. What are the different extinguishing methods?
    • 1. Cooling (Remove/Lower Heat)
    • 2. Smothering (Remove/Displace Oxygen)
    • 3. Interrupt Combustion (Break Fire Tetrahedron)
    • 4. Starving (Remove Fuel)
  11. What is/are the primary cooling agent(s)?
    • Water.
    • Can be in multiple forms. Straight Stream, Narrow Angle Fog, or Wide Angle Fog via Vari-Nozzle or when used with the High Pressure Water Mist system.
  12. What is/are the primary smothering agent(s)?
    • 1. AFFF - Commonly used in Class "B" fires.
    • 2. Carbon Dioxide - Preferred agent for Class "C" fires
    • 3. APC - Used in the Range Guard System
  13. What is/are the primary combustion interrupting agent(s)?
    • 1. PKP - Used in Class "B" fires; can be used in Class "C" fires absent other options.
    • 2. HALON 1301/HALON 1211 - Extremely effective for Class "B" fires; somewhat effective for Class "A" fires.
    • 3. HFP - HALON replacement. Extremely effective for Class "B" fires; somewhat effective for Class "A" fires.
  14. List the different types of Fire Parties.
    • 1. Repair Party
    • 2. Flying Squad (includes Rapid Response Team)
    • 3. Inport Emergency Team (IET)
  15. Describe when a Repair Party will be manned.
    All lockers will be manned up during General Quarters. Any number, at least one, will be manned during Condition IIDC.
  16. Describe the purpose of the Flying Squad.
    • 1. Respond immediately to fire alarms when repair parties are not manned.
    • 2. Extinguish small fires without disrupting operations.
    • 3. Control fires until critical evolutions can be terminated and Condition IIDC can be set if necessary.
    • Rapid Response Team is a subset of the Flying Squad.
  17. What is the purpose of the Inport Emergency Team?
    Handles any emergency inport during and after normal working hours.
  18. What is the purpose of Condition IIDC?
    Allows increase in DC response without disrupting tactical watch stations.
  19. What are the minimum manning requirements when Condition IIDC is called away?
    • 1.DC Central
    • 2. One DCRS
    • 3. One BDS
  20. What is the role of a Fire Marshal and when are they required?
    • 1. Required inport/at-sea during non-Condition I casualties.
    • 2. Proceeds directly to the scene of the fire to direct efforts of Rapid Response Team (RRT).
    • 3. Recommends Condition IIDC if required.
  21. What is the role of the On Scene Leader?
    • 1. In charge at the scene.
    • 2. Wears SCBA
    • 3. Key Decisions:
    •     a. Determines the number of hoses required and direction of attack.
    •     b. Determines Personal Protective Equipment required.
    •     c. Determines lighting requirements in fire affected space.
    •     d. Determines the need for a NFTI/Team Leader.
    •     e. Determines venting/desmoking options, Active desmoking requirements.
  22. What is the role of the Team Leader?
    In charge of the attack team and directs Fire Fighting efforts INSIDE of the space.
  23. What are the four principles of investigation?
    • 1. Investigate Rapidly, but Thorough.
    • 2. Investigate Cautiously.
    • 3. Report what you find.
    • 4. Repeat your investigation.
  24. What is the role of the Rapid Response Team and what are the manning requirements?
    • 1. Proceeds directly to the scene
    • 2. No SCBA or protective clothing required.
    • 3. Attempts to extinguish/contain the fire under the direction of the Fire Marshal.
    • Reports to locker when relieved or carries out duties as directed.

    Four personnel shall be assigned to include the Fire Marshal, Repair Electrician, and two other Advanced DC qualified members.
  25. What size bottles do SCBA's come in?
    30 and 45 minutes; both charged to 4500 psi.
  26. What is the purpose of the first stage regulator?
    Reduces the 4500 psi air down to 100 psi.
  27. What is the purpose of the second stage regulator?
    Maintains positive pressure in the face piece at about 0.05 psi.
  28. At what point will the alarm assembly (Vibralert) sound?
    When the cylinder is down to about 20-25% of available air.
  29. What document details PPE requirements for Fire Team personnel?
    NTTP 3.20.31
  30. What is the purpose of anti-flash clothing?
    Intended to protection to head, lower face, neck, hands, and wrist from transient elevated temperatures and high explosive weapon flashes.
  31. How long should it take to don Fire Fighting Ensemble?
    The optimum time to don FFE is about 2 minutes with another 1 to 2 minutes required to don breathing apparatus. Optimum range is 2.5 to 5 minutes to fully dress out.
  32. What are the characteristics of a portable CO2 extinguisher?
    • 1. 15 lbs of CO2 is stored at 850 psi at 70 deg F.
    • 2. Maximum effective range is 4-6 ft.
    • 3. Approximately 40 sec of continuous use.
  33. What are some maintenance requirements of a portable CO2 extinguisher?
    • 1. Check for dry rot of the hose.
    • 2. Must be completely discharge and turned into supply activity if latest hydrostatic test date stamped on cylinder exceeds:
    •     a. 5 years and cylinder requires recharging.
    •     b. 12 years since last hydrostatic test on full cylinders.
    • 3. Electrical tape should only be wrapped on exposed metallic couplings connecting hose to horn, as applicable.
  34. What are some hazards of a portable CO2 extinguisher?
    • 1. Reflash protection is minimal.
    • 2. Frostbite hazard exists.
    • 3. Asphyxiation hazard (displaces oxygen)
    • 4. Static Electricity hazard (due to rapid expansion of gas during discharge).
  35. What are the characteristics of a portable Potassium Bicarbonate Powder (PKP) bottle?
    • 1. Two sizes, 18 and 27 lb.
    • 2. Two ranges, 19 and 21 ft.
    • 3. Two discharge times, 10 and 11 seconds (minimum).
  36. What types of fires is PKP used on?
    • 1. Will extinguish Class "A" and "B" fires.
    • 2. Will also extinguish Class "C" fires, but is not recommended due to the resulting fouling of electrical contacts and reduce narrow machinery tolerances because of its abrasive qualities.
  37. What are some safety considerations for using PKP?
    • 1. Reflash protection is minimal.
    • 2. Moisture introduced into the cylinder can cause the power to become caked.
    • 3. Vision and Lung Hazard.
    • 4. CO2 Cartridge is a potential missile hazard when not attached to the PKP bottle itself.
  38. What are the characteristics of a portable Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) extinguisher?
    • 1. 2.5 gallons of mixture, 1 qt of which is AFFF.
    • 2. Bottle weighs 27 to 30 lbs.
    • 3. Pressurized with air to 100 psi.
    • 4. Range is 15 ft and decreasing
    • 5. Will last approximately 60 seconds of continuous use.
    • 6. Will extinguish 20 sq ft (4.5 x 4.5 ft) of flammable/combustible liquid fire.
  39. What are the components of a Fire Fighting Ensemble (FFE)?
    • 1. SCBA
    • 2. Flash Gear
    • 3. Coveralls
    • 4. Gloves
    • 5. FFE (Suit)
    • 6. Boots
  40. How much oxygen is in the general air and how much is needed for a fire?
    • 1. Air - 21%
    • 2. Fire - 15%
    • 3. Smolder - 3%
  41. How many feet of hose does the Portable Hydraulic Access and Rescue System (PHARS) have?
    100 feet
  42. What is the rating of the Super Vac Desmoking Fan (Box Fan)?
    3200 cu ft per min
  43. How many lengths of hose and what size nozzle can be used with the Inline Foam Eductor?
    No more than 3, 50', lengths of hose can be used. Only 95 GPM vari-nozzle can be used.
  44. What are the PPE requirements when using the Portable Exothermic Cutting Unit (PECU)?
    • 1. Eye & Face Protection
    • 2. Leather Welder's Jacket
    • 3. Leather Gloves
    • 4. Hearing Protection
  45. What is the rating of the RamFan 2000?
    2000 cu ft per min with 150 psi and 10" ducting.
  46. What is the purpose of the Halligan Tool during a Flight Deck Fire?
    Used for access and overhaul/charlie checks
  47. What is a safety concern with tire fires during a Flight Deck Fire?
    Tires explode sideways, thus they must be attacked from the front and back.
  48. What is the composition of the Crash and Rescue Team?
    • 1. Scene Leader
    • 2. Rescue Persons (Hotsuitman) x2
    • 3. AFFF Hose Teams x2
    •     a. Nozzleman
    •     b. Team Leader
    •     c. Hoseman
    •     d. Plugman
    • 4. Corpsman

    Total of 12 personnel.
  49. What are the indicator lights on the HALON 1301 system and what do they tell us?
    • White - Power Available Indicator Panel
    • Yellow - Start of Time Delay and Vent/Machinery shutdown
    • Red - HALON discharge (after 60 sec +/-10)
  50. What are the time delays involved with the HALON system?
    • 1. Discharge after 60 seconds (+/- 10) for large spaces
    • 2. Discharges after 30 seconds (+/-5) for small spaces
    • 3. 10 seconds for the agent to completel discharge
    • 4. 15 minute soak time
  51. What does HALON produce when exposed to high temperatures?
    At >900 deg F, Hydrogen Fluoride & Hydrogen Bromide are produced.
  52. What are the concentrations for Heptafluorapropage (HFP) in manned and unmanned spaces?
    • Manned Space - 8.5%
    • Unmanned Space - 9.5%
  53. What does Heptaflurapropage (HFP) produce when exposed to high temperatures?
    At 1300 deg F, HFP decomposes to Hydrogen Fluoride.
  54. What are the parameters of the High Pressure Water Mist System?
    1000 psi water is sprayed through 200 micron sized nozzles. It extinguishes the fire by cooling and is rated for 15 minutes of continuous operation.
  55. What are some spaces protected by installed CO2?
    • 1. Paint Locker
    • 2. Paint Mix and Issue Room
    • 3. Flammable Liquid Storeroom
    • 4. Flammable Compressed Gas Cylinder Storeroom
  56. What types of fires is the installed CO2 designed to combat?
    • Effective and preferred agent for Class "C" fires.
    • Effective agent for Class "B" fires.
  57. What color lights are on the installed CO2 indicator panel and what do they indicate?
    • White - Power Available
    • Red - CO2 discharged
  58. How long is the time delay in the installed CO2 system?
    30 seconds.
  59. How do you activate the installed CO2 system?
    • 1. Break glass on pull box cover.
    • 2. Grasp handle and pull hard
    • 3. Pull cable 3-5 inches or until red paint appears.
  60. What are some safety precautions that must be followed when conducting PMS on the installed CO2 system?
    • 1. Must wear SCBA.
    •     a. For visual inspection, worn in standby
    •     b. Donned for weighing bottles
    • 2. Must conduct a safety brief.
    • 3. Block open inward doors.
    • 4. Establish escape path.
    • 5. Post warning signs.
    • 6. Establish comms.
    • 7. Assign 2 CPR qualified personnel.
  61. What are the two types of AFFF Balanced Proportioning Systems?
    • Type II - 35 gpm @ 200 psi
    • Type III 65 gpm @ 175 psi
    • Provides 94-6% or 97-3% mix depending on platform.
  62. What are some safety precautions that must be followed when conducting PMS on the AFFF Balanced Proportioning System?
    • 1. Ensure space ventilation is operating.
    • 2. If rotten egg odor is detected; all work shall stop, personnel shall leave space, and discharge of H2S shall be reported to the EOOW, DCA, or appropriate authority.
    • 3. GFE assess conditions and determines PPE/portable ventilation requirements.
    • 4. Personnel should wear SCBAs when conducting tests or maintenance within spaces suspected of high H2S.
    • Flishing of AFFF solution pipes only provides temporary mitigation of H2S hazards.
    • 5. Open low point drains, if installed.
  63. What are the AFFF discharge limitations?
    • <3 nm from land - No discharge
    • 3-12 nm from land - Discharge permitted if ship speed is 12kts or greater
    • >12 nm from land - Discharge as required
  64. How long and what size is the DC Deck Re-Entry AFFF hose?
    125' non-collapsible rubber hose with 1.5" vari-nozzle.
  65. In the AFFF Balanced Proportioning System, what is the purpose of the Hycheck Valve?
    Controls flow of firemain to ratio controller.
  66. In the AFFF Balanced Proportioning System, what is the purpose of the Powercheck Valve?
    Controls flow of AFFF concentrate to the ratio controller.
  67. In the AFFF Balanced Proportioning System, what is the purpose of the Ratio Controller?
    Mixes AFFF concentrate and firemain to produce finished foam.
  68. In the AFFF Balanced Proportioning System, what is the purpose of the Balancing Valve
    Maintain equal AFFF concentrate and firemain pressures.
  69. In the AFFF Balanced Proportioning System, what is the purpose of the Master SOPV?
    • 1. Starts AFFF Pump.
    • 2. Opens Hycheck Valve.
    • 3. Opens Powercheck Valve.
  70. In the AFFF Balanced Proportioning System, what is the purpose of the Service SOPV
    Routes foam to proper sub-system.
  71. What are the parameters of the automatic fire protection for the Gaylord Hood?
    Fail-Safe thermostat located in the ductwork is activated at 250 deg F.
  72. What are the parameters of the manual fire protection for the Gaylord Hood?
    The Remote Fire Switch or Damper Control Switch located near the entrance/exit to the galley or on the Gaylord Hood.
  73. At what temperature does the fusible link on the Gaylord Hood melt and what does it do?
    Provides automatic activation of the Gaylord Hoods APC fire suppression system when temperatures exceed 360 deg F.
  74. How does the Gaylord Hood automatically secure the heating elements?
    When the APC bottle drops to 125 psi, the power to the heating elements will be secured.
  75. What information can be found in Chapter 4, Section 2 of the Main Space Fire Doctrine?
    • 1. Firefighting Methods
    • 2. Repair Party Leader's Checklist
    • 3. Compartment Hazards
    • 4. Magazine Sprinkler Control Valves
  76. What information can be found in Chapter 4, Section 3, of the Main Space Fire Doctrine?
    • 1. Reentry Checklists
    • 2. Fire & Smoke Boundaries
    • 3. Electrical & Mechanical Isolation
    • 4. Ventilation
    • 5. De-Watering Outside the Space
    • 6. SCBA Change-out/Charging Stations
    • 7. Primary/Secondary Space Reentry Plan
    • 8. De-Smoking
    • 9. Atmospheric Testing
    • 10. Installed F/F Systems
    • 11. Smoke Ejection System (SES)
    • 12. Toxic Gas Bill
    • 13. Fire & Smoke Detection Systems
  77. During a Main Space Fire, when do you activate AFFF bilge sprinkling and for how long?
    • 1. Flammable Liquid Leak - minimum 1 minute.
    • 2. Report of Class "B" Fire - until fire is out or space abandoned
    • 3. Upon Evacuation - no longer than 4 minutes
    • 4. Prior to Space Re-Entry - 2 minutes (can be run concurrently with ventilating space)
  78. During a Main Space Fire, how do you configure ventilation?
    • 1. Flammable Liquid Leak - Negative ventilation in affected space.
    • 2. Report of Class "B" fire - Negative in affected space, Positive in surrounding spaces
    • 3. Upon evacuation - Secure ventilation (will automatically occur if space is protected by HALON or HFP).
    • 4. Prior to Space Re-Entry - Negative for 15 minutes following 15 minute HALON/HFP soak time.

    Note: Maintain Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) in the Smoke Control Zone.
  79. List some items found in the Turnover Report to the EOOW and Fire Marshal or RPL.
    • 1. Compartment Affected
    • 2. Fire Origin and Location
    • 3. Status of Fuel Source
    • 4. AFFF Bilge Sprinkling times
    • 5. HALON times
    • 6. Status of Ventilation
    • 7. F/F Equipment left in the space
    • 8. Personnel accountability
    • 9. Status of Mechanical and Electrical isolation
    • 10. Status of Lighting
    • 11. Machinery Status
    • 12. Recommended Re-Entry Route
  80. What are three ways to determine the effectiveness of HALON?
    • 1. Temperature of Boundaries - Increases by 50 deg F or more in the same spot.
    • 2. Exhaust Vent Discharge Smoke Color - White smoke (Good)/Black Smoke (Bad)
    • 3. Visual Inspection - Monitor conditions through the viewport or installed cameras.
  81. Prior to re-entry, what conditions must be met?
    • 1. Mechanical Isolation must be complete.
    • 2. Electrical Isolation may be in progress.
    • 3. Fire Boundaries shall be established.
  82. What must be done prior to re-entry when combating fire in a HFP protected space?
    • Crack door open, exposing one arm only, and take air sample using the 10 to 90 ppm range tube. 
    • Personnel can only re-enter the space when concentration is below 90ppm.
  83. What is the tightness requirement for boundaries during a Main Space Fire?
    Fume Tight
  84. When the Range Guard system fails to operate, what are the alternate methods to extinguish the fire?
    • 1. Portable AFFF Extinguisher
    • 2. 18lb PKP Extinguisher simultaneously with Narrow Angle Water Fog.
    • 3. Narrow Angle Water Fog.
  85. When facing a deep seated Energized Cableway Fire, how do you combat the casualty?
    • 1. AFFF Extinguisher
    • 2. Fresh Water Hose Reel, Fog Pattern
    • 3. Seawater Hose Reel, Fog Pattern
    • 4. AFFF Hose, Fog Pattern

    All must be done at a minimum standoff distance of 4 feet.
  86. What is the composition of the Flying Squad?
    • Rapid Response Team
    • 1. Fire Marshal
    • 2. Electrician
    • 3. Rapid Responders (2) 

    • Backup Team
    • 1. Scene Leader 
    • 2. Team Leader
    • 3. Team Members (3)
    • 4. Investigators (2)
  87. In flight deck firefighting, what is the purpose of a Dzus key?
    Provides a Z-blade to cut retention belts and has a tool that can break glass as well as provide access to specific compartments.
  88. In flight deck firefighting, what are the hose requirements?
    • 1. Three hoses required
    •     a. Two 1.5" or 1.75" hose lines with 125 gpm vari-nozzles hooked up to installed AFFF hose reels (port and starboard).
    •     b. One 1.5" or 1.75" hose line with 95 gpm vari-nozzle and in-line eductor rigged to a standard saltwater FM plug for ordinance cooling.
Card Set
DCASE - Unit 5 - Fire Fighting
Study cards for DCASE Unit 5 - Fire Fighting.