1. NSTM for PPE
  2. 2 sizes of SCBA
    • 30 mins
    • 45 mins
    • 4500 psi regardless of size
  3. SCBA Donning Methods
    • Coat Style
    • Over the Head
  4. Personnel protection for the fire party required during general quarters should be in accordance with
    NSTM 077
  5. Members of the fire party not required to wear a firefighter’s ensemble (FFE) should have:
    • long sleeved uniforms and/or fire resistant engineering coveralls
    • firefighter’s helmet
    • breathing apparatus
    • antiflash hood
    • protective gloves.
  6. Flash Hood Characteristics
    • Manufactured from two layers of Kevlar/FR Rayon
    • Designed to provide protection to head and face
  7. Flash Gloves Characteristics
    • Designed to provide protection to hands and forearms.
    • 100% cotton construction, one size fits all.
  8. FPG is worn by
    All personnel involved in direct firefighting
  9. Firefighting gloves characteristics
    • Shelby Steamblock Model #5229
    • outer shell
    • moisture barrier
    • thermal liner
  10. What is the purpose of anti-flash clothing?
    Intended to provide protection to head, lower face, neck, hands, and wrist from transient elevated temperatures and high explosive weapon flashes.
  11. How long is the PHARS hydraulic hose?
    100 ft
  12. What is the range of the portable PKP extinguishers?
    19-21 ft
  13. Box Fan Characteristics
    • 115 V
    • Explosion proof
    • 3200 cfm
    • No ducts
    • Door bars and hooks
  14. Ram Fan Characteristics
    • Supplied using an 1½ inch fire hose
    • 2000 cfm with 150 psi & 10” duct
    • Explosion proof with grounding clamp
  15. Power Hawk Characteristics
    • 1. 12 V rechargeable battery supply
    • Multiple batteries per kit.
    • Can also use other 12 V source w/ jumper cables.
    • 2. 8 foot cable from pack to tool.
    • 3. Tools provided: mechanical ram, cutter,spreader, Sawzall, light.
    • One person carry with backpack
  16. PHARS Characteristics
    • 4 HP Yanmar Diesel engine and 5000 psig hydraulic pump.
    • Hose reel contains 100 ft of hose.
    • Tools provided: hydraulic ram, cutter, and spreader.
    • Will run on JP-4, JP-5, or DFM.
  17. PECU PPE Required
    • Eye & face protection
    • Leather welder’s jacket
    • Leather gloves
    • Hearing protection
  18. PECU Constraints
    Can not be used in a flammable or explosive atmosphere.
  19. NFTI Mod 1 vs Mod 2
    • MOD-1 Talisman or Bullard TI Navy is the basic model,and comes with thermal imaging only .
    • MOD-2 Talisman comes with a temperature readout and a video overlay feature .
  20. CO2 Cylinder Characteristics
    • 15 lbs of CO2.
    • Effective range 4-6 feet.
    • Will last approximately 40 seconds of continuous use.
    • Ensure tamper seal is in place on pull pin.
    • Conduct agent test prior to fire fighting.
    • Ground cylinder to deck when discharging.
    • Discharge at the base.
  21. CO2 Safety Concerns
    • Has minimal reflash capabilities.
    • Frostbite hazard.
    • Asphyxiation hazard.
    • Static electricity hazard.
  22. PKP Cylinder Characteristics
    • 18 and 27 lbs cylinders.
    • Effective range 18 lb: 19 feet, 27 lb: 21 feet.
    • Will last approximately 10-11 seconds of continuous use.
    • Ensure tamper seal is in place on pull pin.
    • Remove discharge hose from holder and depress plunger handle.
    • Conduct agent test prior to fire fighting.
    • Discharge at the base of fire using a side to side motion.
  23. PKP Safety Concerns
    • Has minimal reflash capabilities.
    • Vision and lung hazard.
  24. Portable AFFF Cylinder Characteristics
    • 2.5 gallons pre-mixed solution of AFFF concentrate and fresh water
    • Effective range: 15 feet and decreases as pressure decreases.
    • Will last approximately 60 seconds of continuous use.
    • Ensure tamper seal is in place on pull pin.
    • Check pressure gauge to ensure in the green safe range.
  25. AFFF cylinders are used for
    • vapor: secure a small fuel spill to prevent a fire
    • to extinguish a small class B fire (including a deep fat fryer fire)
    • to extinguish a small class A fire
    • for use in standing fire watch during hotwork.
  26. 3 Advantages of firefighting using AFFF
    • 1) Aqueous film is formed on surface of fuel which prevents escape of fuel vapors.
    • 2) Foam effectively excludes oxygen from fuel surface.
    • 3) Water content of foam provides cooling effect.
  27. AFFF Inline Eductor Requirements
    Needs a minimum of 100 psi firemain to produce a 3% or 6% foam discharge.
  28. AFFF Inline Eductore Requirements (Part 2)
    • No more than 3 - 50’ lengths of discharge hose if on the same deck or going up one deck.
    • A max. of 6 - 50’ hoses going down one or more decks.
    • No more than 1 - 50’ hose between the fireplug and eductor.
  29. RPM Instruction
  30. Rapid Response Team Manning
    • Fire Marshall
    • Electrician
    • 2x Rapid Responders
  31. Back Up Team Manning
    • Scene Leader
    • Team Leader
    • 3x Team Members
    • 2x Investigators
  32. Flying Squad Composition
    Rapid Response Team + Back Up Team
  33. Rapid Response team objectives in event of fire
    • 1.Proceed directly to the scene and attempt to extinguish or contain the fire.
    • 2.Do not delay response in order to don protective clothing.
    • -SCBA may be used if immediately available.
    • 3.If unable to extinguish the fire, isolate and set Zebra in affected area.
    • -Break out firefighting equipment and remain on scene until the remainder of the Flying Squad arrives.
  34. What does the back up team do while RRT is fighting the fire?
    Go to locker and dress out
  35. Condition II DC Intention & Minimum Manning
    • Allows a significant increase in response without disrupting tactical watchstations.
    • DC Central, 1 – DCRS, 1 – BDS
  36. Reasons to set Condition II DC
    • If the Flying Squad cannot handle the situation.
    • Ship’s survivability affected.
    • More than one space involved.
  37. Who is designated as repair party leader?
    Officer or CPO who is totally familiar with repair locker area of responsibility.
  38. What does the OSL do?
    • On Scene Leader - in charge at the scene of the fire.
    • Assess the extent of the fire.
    • Determine firefighting agent to be used.
    • Determine method and direction of attack.
    • CONTROL the fire party.
    • Establish communications.
    • Determine PPE requirements.
  39. Can the attack team leader be a nozzleman?
  40. Boundarymen Function
    • Fire boundarymen proceed directly to the scene when a fire is called away and set primary and secondary fire boundaries as directed by the repair party leader or fire marshal.
    • Report to roving investigators
  41. IET Minimum Manning IAW RPM
    • 1x FM/OSL
    • 1x Nozzleman
    • 2x Hoseman
    • 1x Plugman
    • 2x Investigators
    • 1x Talker/Plotter
    • 1x Electrician
    • 1x Utility Person
  42. What if the FM is the EDO?
    Then a separate OSL is required
  43. What are the procedures involved in damage investigation?
    • Operate in Pairs.
    • Search all surrounding / boundary areas for fire, damage and personnel casualties.
    • Monitor fire and smoke boundaries
    • Investigate thoroughly, cautiously, report to RPL
    • repeat until directed to stop
  44. What is the Flying Squad's purpose?
    • Respond immediately to fire alarms when repair parties are not available.
    • Extinguish fires effectively without disrupting normal ship operations.
    • Control fires until ongoing sensitive critical evolutions can be terminated and GQ stations are ready
  45. Principles of Investigation
    • Know the ship
    • Investigate thoroughly
    • Investigate cautiously
    • Report findings
    • Repeat investigation
    • Never lose control of a watertight fitting
    • Re-secure compartments after leaving them
    • Look for hidden damage.
  46. Special Hazard Fire
    • Fire which reacts in other than an ordinary manner when extinguishing agents are applied.
    • LOX, Gaseous O2, Hydraulic Fluids
  47. Range Guard fails, how do you combat deep fat fryer?
    • Method 1: Portable AFFF Extinguisher
    • Method 2: 18lb PKP extinguisher + narrow angle water fog
    • Method 3: Water, narrow angle fog
  48. Energized Cableway Fire (Cannot completely secure fire, fire is deep seated)
    • 1. AFFF Extinguisher (4 ft away minimum)
    • 2. FW Hose Reel, Fog (4 ft away minimum)
    • 3. Seawater Hose, Fog (4 ft away)
    • 4. AFFF, Fog (4 ft)
  49. How to combat a MOGAS fire?
    • Jettison
    • Attack any pools with PKP/AFFFF
  50. How to combat an Alcohol fire?
    • Narrow angle fog
    • HFP
  51. Flammable Gas Cylinder Fire
    • Secure source
    • minimize collateral damage
  52. Flammable Liquid Leak: Immediate Action
    • Activate AFFF bilge sprinkling for a minimum of 1 minute
    • Set negative or exhause ventilation in affected space
  53. Report of Class 'B' Fire Immediate Action
    • Activate Bilge Sprinkling until bilge fire is out or space abandoned.
    • Set negative/exhaust ventilation in affected space
    • Set positive pressure ventilation in surrounding spaces
    • (upon evacuation): secure ventilation in affected space
  54. Ventilation: Prior to machinery space reentry
    • Set Negative or Exhaust ventilation in the affected space for a minimum of 15 minutes after 15 minute Halon or HFP soak time.
    • Continue negative/exhaust ventilation during reentry, through overhaul.
    • Maintain Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) in the Smoke Control Zone.
  55. Items to report to EOOW/Fire Marshall/RPL
    • AFFF Bilge Sprinkling start/stop time
    • HALON actuated/released times
    • Ventilation secured/energized times
    • Mechanical/Electrical Isolation
    • Fire origin/location
  56. The DCA will determine effectiveness of fixed fire extinguishing systems using one or more of the following techniques as appropriate:
    • If the temperature increases by 50° or more, in the same exact spot on the bulkhead or deck, the fire may not have been extinguished or has reflashed.
    • White smoke or no smoke indicates the fire has been extinguished.
  57. Space Re-Entry: HALON GOOD
    • Minimum two protected (SCBA & FFE) fire party members with AFFF extinguisher.
    • Mech Isolation must be COMPLETE
    • Elec Isolation may be in progress
    • Fire Boundaries shall be established
  58. Space Re-Entry: Watermist GOOD differences from HALON good
    • Re-establish or maintain desmoking with installed ventilation (15 min soak time not required)
    • Reentry should be attempted asap after WM is actuated
  59. Post Fire Space Overhaul Atmosphere test reference
    NSTM 074 Vol 3
  60. Crash & Smash Team Composition
    • Scene Leader
    • 2 Rescue Persons (Hotsuitmen) Primary duty is to save personnel
    • 2 AFFF hose teams
    • Nozzleman
    • Team Leader
    • Hoseman
    • Plugman
    • Corpsman
  61. Crash & Smash Hose Team Manning
    • 3 persons minimum per 1 ½” hose
    • 5 persons minimum per 2 ½” hose (Plugman may act as Hoseman)
  62. Helo Crash Firefighting Required Equipment
    • 1. 3x AFFF Hoses
    • 2. 2x Complete Proximity Tools
    • 3. Tool Roll
  63. Wheel Fires
    • Attack from fore/aft
    • They explode sideways
  64. What size nozzle is required on the flight deck?
    • 125 GPM Vari-nozzle
    • (unless back-up hose is fed from In-line eductor - then 95GPM)
  65. How many hoses are required on/near the flight deck?
    • 3 (generally)
    • Also platform dependent
  66. Supervac cfm (box fan)
  67. Ram Fan cfm
    2000 cfm
  68. Vent Damper engage (Gaylord hood)
  69. Fusible Link melt (Gaylord hood)
  70. Duties of Flight Deck Fire Party
    • Saving lives
    • Fire suppression
    • Extinguish & limit damage to the  aircraft
  71. HCO Duties
    • Keep bridge informed when fire/crash/explosion occurs
    • Direct firefighting crew efforts
    • Clear aircraft rapidly from fire area
  72. DCA duties related to FQ/Crash & Smash
    • Organization/training of flight deck firefighting & rescue teams
    • Material maintenance readiness & operation of assigned equipment
    • Directs fire parties from unaffected areas
  73. Fire Hose Requirements during Flight Quarters
    • Varies depending on platform & ship instructions
    • Typical Setup: 2x 1/2" vari nozzles with AFFF hose reels (port & stbd)
    • 1x 1/2" vari nozzle + inline eductor with Firemain plug (ordnance cooling)
  74. Flight Deck PPE
    • Cranial + Goggles + Ear pro
    • Jersey
    • MK-1 Life Vest
  75. Examples of Crash & Smash Tool Roll Minimum Contents
    • Halligan Tool
    • Fire Axe
    • Cable Cutter
    • Flashlight
  76. Aircraft crash sequence of events
    • 1. All personnel take cover until "all clear" sounded
    • 2. OSL orders attack teams to move in, fight fire from fore to aft
    • 3. Casualties reported to OSL. OSL reports to HCO
    • 4. Hotsuit men check inside/outside helo, carry fire extinguisher + halligan tool
    • 5. Reflash watch set
  77. Aviation Team Training Requirements
    • All flight deck personnel + DCA must attend
    • Team must complete + pass every 24 months or when 40% of team has turned over
  78. Image Upload 1
    Inline Filter
  79. Image Upload 2
    Time Delay Device
  80. Image Upload 3
    TDD Bypass
  81. Image Upload 4
    Vent Shutdown & Preshutdown Alarm Switches
  82. Image Upload 5
    1/4" Check Valve
  83. Image Upload 6
    5 lb CO2 Actuation Cylinder
  84. Image Upload 7
    Release Alarm Pressure Switch
  85. Image Upload 8
    125 lb Halon
  86. Image Upload 9
    Ratio Controller
  87. Image Upload 10
    Hycheck Valve
  88. Image Upload 11
    Master SOPV
  89. Image Upload 12
    Powercheck Valve
  90. Image Upload 13
    Balancing Valve
  91. Image Upload 14
    AFFF Pump
  92. Image Upload 15
    300 gal AFFF concentrate tank
  93. Image Upload 16
  94. Image Upload 17
    Local Pull Station
  95. Image Upload 18
    Time Delay Device
  96. Image Upload 19
    Vent Shutdown Discharge & Alarm Pressure Switches
  97. Image Upload 20
    Protective Cage
  98. Image Upload 21
    Remote Pull Pin
  99. Image Upload 22
    Fusible Link
  100. Image Upload 23
    Pressure Release Control Box
  101. Image Upload 24
    Nitrogen Cylinder
  102. Image Upload 25
    • APC Cylinder
    • Pressure Switch
  103. Halon 1301 Characteristics
    • Activated with 5 lb. CO2 actuators
    • Usually at least two actuation stations (One inside the protected space and one outside)
    • Audible & Visual alarms upon activation
    • Activated by a Pressure Switch
    • A Time Delay Device allows for ventilation & equipment to secure and personnel to egress
    • 60 seconds for large spaces, 30 seconds for small
    • Valve installed to bypass the TDD if necessary
    • Ventilation & equipment secured by a Pressure Switch
  104. Halon Discharge After
    • 60 seconds (+/- 10) large space
    • 30 seconds (+/- 5) small space
    • If no discharge is indicated after 70 seconds (large) or 35 seconds (small), open the TDD Bypass Valve
    • 10 seconds for agent to completely discharge
    • 15 minutes minimum agent soak time
  105. Halon 1301 stops fire by
    interrupting the Uninhibited Chemical Chain Reaction
  106. HFP Characteristics
    • Configured the same as the Halon system.
    • Concentration in manned space is 8.5%
    • Concentration in unmanned space is 9.5%
    • Used where water mist is impractical or ineffective.  Used in low flashpoint stowage such as Mogas or alcohol
  107. Watermist Characteristics
    • 1000 PSI through 200 micron nozzles
    • Extinguish the fire by cooling
    • Each storage tank is sized to provide flow to the largest protected space for at least 15 minutes continuous operation
  108. What kinds of spaces might have installed CO2 systems?
    • Paint Locker
    • Paint Mix and Issue Room
    • Flammable Liquid Storeroom
    • Flammable Compressed Gas Cylinder Storeroom
  109. CO2 Indicator Panel
    • White: power available
    • Red: CO2 discharged
  110. CO2 time delay
    30 seconds
  111. CO2 Safety Concerns
    • Frostbite  (releases at -110 degrees F).
    • Material must be allowed to cool since CO2 provides no reflash protection.
    • Avoid contact of horn with electrical circuits.
  112. AFFF Type 2 vs 3 systems
    • TYPE II 35 GPM @ 200 PSI
    • TYPE III 65 GPM @ 175 PSI
  113. AFFF Characteristics
    • Mixes with water to form an aqueous film which excludes oxygen from the surface of the fuel.
    • Cools due to water content.
    • Excellent penetrating characteristics / superior to water on Class “A” fires.
  114. Flushing of AFFF solution pipes only provides ________ mitigation of H2S hazards.
  115. AFFF discharge requirements
    • <3 NM from land - No Overboard Discharge
    • 3 - 12  NM from land - Discharge Permitted if Ship Speed is 12 kts or Higher
    • >12 NM FROM LAND - Discharge as Required
  116. AFFF piping
    • AFFF Concentrate - Striped LIGHT BLUE & RED
    • AFFF Foam Discharge - Striped RED & GREEN
  117. Hycheck Valve
    • The Hycheck valve is a allows the flow of seawater from the firemain system to be mixed with AFFF concentrate
    • Hycheck is held closed by firemain pressure from the master SOPV on top of the diaphragm. When firemain pressure on the diaphragm is relieved by the master SOPV, the Hycheck is forced open by firemain pressure.
  118. Powercheck Valve
    allows flow of AFFF from the pump to be mixed with seawater but protects the AFFF tank from seawater contamination or dilution
  119. ratio controller
    Mixes AFFF concentrate and firemain to produce finished foam.
  120. balancing valve
    Maintain equal AFFF concentrate and firemain pressures.
  121. Master SOPV
  122. How is the gaylord hood activated?
    • Fire protection for the Gaylord Hood is activated automatically or manually.
    • Automatically by means of the Fail-Safe Thermostat when temperatures reach 250°F.
    • Located in the ductwork.
    • Manually by means of the Remote Fire Switch or Damper Control Switch.
    open time delay bypass valve
  124. halon system status lights
  126. halon status system indicator colors
    • white: power available
    • yellow: halon activated
    • red: halon discharged
  127. Primary Boundary Characteristics
    • ANY physical boundary can be a primary fire boundary (FB)
    • Generally set at fire zone bulkheads or watertight subdivisions.
    • Minimum fume-tight for Main Space Fire.
    • All six sides of affected space: Bulkheads, overhead and deck closest to the fire.
    • Primary emphasis must be on vertical boundary
    • It should be the repair party leader’s decision to man fire boundaries with charged hoses.
  128. Actions taken by primary boundarymen
    • Remove ALL combustibles away from boundary
    • Cool
    • To prevent rapid steam build-up and increased risk of steam burns, the firefighter should use initial bursts of water which may be as short as 1-2 seconds
    • Close All accesses, maintain Zebra
    • May be manned by a single person with a 1 1/2 inch hose
    • SCBA worn by boundarymen as required
  129. Secondary Boundary Characteristics
    • Next bulkhead, overhead and deck outside the primary boundary.
    • Manned when fire spreads past primary boundaries
  130. Smoke Control Zone
    • Area between primary and secondary smoke boundaries
    • when the access to the fire space is opened by the attack team, smoke will be trapped in the smoke control zone.
    • Breathing device required here
  131. OSL Characteristics & Responsibilities
    • In charge of firefighting at the scene
    • Normally located outside the primary fire boundary
    • Communicates with the Repair Party Leader
    • Sizes up the fire
    • Determines method of attack
    • Determines protective clothing requirements
    • Determines if active desmoking is required
    • Monitors hose team reliefs
    • Directs electrical isolation
  132. Hose Handling Requirements
    • One person can operate an 11/2 inch hose in initial attack
    • Sustained operation requires a minimum of 2 hose handlers in addition to the nozzleman (requirements increase based on hose length and number of turns)
    • Two people can operate a 21/2 inch hose in initial attack
    • Sustained operation requires a minimum of 4 hose handlers in addition to the nozzleman (requirements increase based on hose length and number of turns)
  133. Firefighting Patterns: Straight Stream
    • Used in direct attack. 
    • Also good to penetrate and break up burned Class (A) material for overhaul. (100 feet at 100PSI)
  134. Firefighting Patterns: Narrow Angle
    (30 Degrees) General firefighting pattern. Good for providing a “push” to flame fronts. (50 feet at 100 PSI)
  135. Firefighting Patterns: Medium Angle Fog
    Medium Angle fog / (60 Degrees) Used to interrupt the thermal layer in the roll over stage of a fire
  136. Firefighting Patterns: Wide Angle Fog
    Wide angle fog / (90 Degrees) Good heat absorption, used for personnel protection. (5-10 feet at 100 PSI)
  137. F/F Attack Techniques
    • Direct Attack
    • Fog Attack
    • Indirect Attack
    • Venting Options
  138. Direct Attack
    • Direct Attack - Preferred method
    • Short bursts (several seconds) of water with a narrow angle fog or straight stream nozzle pattern onto the seat of the fire.
  139. Fog Attack
    • Fog Attack (to gain control of fire)
    • Used when:
    • –Overhead gases are burning (Rollover).
    • –Seat of fire is obstructed.
    • –Multiple seats of fire present.
    • –Delay or prevent flashover during growth stage.
  140. Indirect Attack
    • –When heat or other conditions deny access to space.
    • –May improve condition to permit reentry for direct attack.
    • –To cool space, apply water fog into space from a cracked open access or hole cut in the deck.
    • –Follow immediately with direct attack.
  141. Venting (Attack Method)
    • –Additional option to consider when topside or in large area that opens to weather.
    • Cut hole in access above fire.
    • –Minimum of 12in x 12in
    • –Must be wearing full Firefighting Ensemble including SCBA.
  142. Active Desmoking authority
    • OSL requests
    • RPL approves
  143. When should you actively desmoke?
    • –If the initial attack is unsuccessful.  
    • –If likely that the fire attack will go on for an extended period of time.
    • If smoke or heat is spreading to spaces beyond the fire space impeding the attack on the fire.
  144. What is the goal of desmoking?
    • The goal in desmoking is to replace 95% of the smoke-laden air with fresh air. This will require approximately 4 complete space volume changes in a compartment.
  145. OET Testing Reference
    NSTM 074 vol 3
  146. dewatering reference
    nstm 079 v2
  147. Emergency Access (Class C Fire)
    • If emergency access is deemed necessary, the person in charge at the scene may determine the equipment needs to be accesses
    • (CO’s permission is not required except for a SWBD)
  150. venting vs active desmoking
    • venting removes heat and smoke from fire space
    • active desmoking removes heat and smoke from smoke control zone
  151. Things that should be on an isolation list (kill card)
    • Electrical
    • Mechanical
    • Ventilation
    • DC equipment
    • Hazardous materials
    • Water, Air, and oil Tight Closures
  152. What is the range of the portable PKP extinguishers?
    19-21 ft
  153. Attack Team Leader Responsibilities
    • May be the nozzleman or a separate individual.
    • -A separate individual is necessary if a NFTI is used.
    • -When two hoses attack the fire together, the ATL directs both.
    • -If two hoses attack a fire independently, you need two ATLs.
  154. True/False: The scene leader determines the number of hosemen necessary to man each hose
  155. 4x CORE principles of investigation
    • Rapid but cautious
    • Thorough
    • Report to RPL
    • REPEAT until directed to stop
  156. OSL Duties
    • Assess the extent of the fire.
    • Determine firefighting agent to be used.
    • Determine method and direction of attack.
    • CONTROL the fire party.
    • Establish communications.
    • Determine PPE requirements.
  157. Describe the purpose(s) of the Flying Squad.
    • Respond immediately to fire alarms when repair parties are not available.
    • Extinguish fires effectively without disrupting normal ship operations.
    • Control fires until ongoing sensitive critical evolutions can be terminated and GQ stations are ready.
  158. What procedures are involves in DC investigation?
    • Operate in Pairs.
    • Search all surrounding / boundary areas for fire, damage and personnel casualties.
    • Monitor fire and smoke boundaries.
    • Investigate thoroughly, cautiously, report to RPL and repeat until directed to stop.
  159. Fire Triangle
    • OXYGEN
    • FUEL
    • HEAT
  160. 4 stages of a fire lifecycle
    • growth
    • flashover
    • fully developed fire
    • decay
  161. growth stage
    • Earliest stage beginning with ignition.
    • Fire limited to origin of ignition material.
    • Forms a hot, smoky layer in the overhead
  162. rollover
    • gases burn in the overhead during growth stage
    • occurs during growth stage
  163. flashover
    • Simultaneous ignition of all contents of the compartment.
    • Normally occurs when the upper gas layer reaches 11000F.
    • Can usually be prevented by proper fog application or venting.
  164. fully developed stage
    • All combustibles in the space have reached their ignition temperature and are burning.
    • Burning rate limited by the amount of oxygen available.Flames emerge from any opening
  165. decay stage
    • Available oxygen is consumed or reduced to a point where there is insufficient oxygen to react with fuel.
    • Flame may cease to exist if the area is sufficiently airtight.
    • Burning reduced to glowing embers
  166. smoldering
    requires 3% oxygen
  167. fire requires
    15% oxygen
  168. oxidation
    –chemical process where a substance combines with oxygen

    –energy (heat) is given off
  169. pyrolysis
    –Chemical decomposition of a solid to a vapor by the action of heat
  170. heat transfer methods
    • conduction
    • convection
    • radiation
  171. how does APC work?
    –Reacts with burning fat / cooking oil to produce a non-combustible soap-like material that provides a vapor barrier on the surface of the cooking oil.
  172. HALON 1301 general characteristics
    –Extremely effective for Class “B” fires

    –Somewhat effective for Class “A” fires

    –No reflash protection

    • –Hazards
    • High velocity discharge

    –Extremely noisy

    –Local turbulence

    • –Frostbite
    • Toxic decomposition
  173. what to use to combat hydraulic fluid fire
    AFFF/PKP, Water fog, Halon, most effective agents
  174. how to combat OTTO II fire
    Use water or AFFF to cool OTTO fuel below flash point (2650F) by sweeping across the top of burning fuel with narrow fog pattern. Both water and AFFF are lighter than OTTO fuel and will f
  175. MSFD main reference
    Published as an enclosure to section 4 of SURFOR Repair Party Manual or as a ship's instruction.
  176. assessment team composition
    • 2 Personnel with FFE/SCBA/NFTI
    • Portable AFFF extinguisher
  177. AGENT BAD
    • Discharge second shot of Halon (if installed).
    • If effective, follow “agent effective” procedures
    • Enter as soon as possible after the space is evacuated and mechanically isolated.
    • Electrical isolation (except lighting) is an ongoing process and should not delay space re-entry.
    • Wait at least 15 minutes for Halon soak time
    • Activate Exhaust ventilation for minimum of 15 min for space cooling.
    • Warmest part of the space is likely to be overhead.
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