1. What is cryptography?
    Cryptography is making information hidden so only intended receiver can read it.
  2. What is confidentiality?
    • - prevents unauthorized disclosure of information
    • - symmetric and asymmetric encryption
  3. What is integrity?
    • - provides assurance that method was not modified
    • - hashing, digital certs, digital signatures
  4. What is availability?
    • - insuring resources are available to authorized users in a timely manner
    • - redundancy, fail over, raid, high availability clusters
  5. What is authentication?
    • - the process of verifying that the sender is who they say they are
    • - bio metrics, encryption, digital certs, PIN
  6. What is authorizaton?
    • - granting access based upon the need
    • - access control list (ACL), clearance level
  7. What is accounting?
    • - act of collecting information on resource usage
    • - logging, auditing, monitoring
  8. Encryption key storage
  9. A certificate authority takes _______ actions in PKI
    issues and signs all root certificates
  10. A CRL is compromised of
    public keys
  11. SSH
    deals with remote access/routers
  12. TLS
    maximum security between web browser and a web server
  13. RSA
    key exchange; strong
  14. elliptic curve cryptography
    is mostly used in embedded devices and produces higher strength encryption with shorter keys
  15. cryptography's four primary functions
    • - confidentiality
    • - integrity
    • - authentication
    • - non-repudiation
  16. ensures only authorized parties can access data
    (symmetric and asymmetric encryption)
  17. data has not been modified in transit (hashing, digital signatures, digital certs)
  18. verifying the sender is who they say they are (bio metrics, digital certs)
  19. prevents denying of actions
  20. process of converting readable text into unreadable series (hidden)
  21. practice of finding weaknesses in ciphers (finding the code)
  22. result of encryption performed on plain text using an algorithm (disguised)
    cipher text
  23. steganography
    hidden with graphics or sound files
  24. substitute cipher
    changes one character/symbol into another character/symbol
  25. transposition cipher
    changing positions of plain text letters within a sentence (scrambling letters)
  26. stream cipher
    data encrypted bit-by-bit (wireless)
  27. block cipher
    enciphers chunks of data, slower, stronger than stream
  28. frequency analysis
    the study of frequency of letters or groups of letters in a ciphertext
  29. give a scenario of perfect forward secrecy
    if someone steals your computer key, they can only crack the information for the part that was encrypted.
  30. key stretching
    • apart of key management
    • the longer the key, the longer it will take to get hacked
  31. steganography usage
    • - convert channel
    • - electronic watermarking (DRM)
    • - metadata
  32. What is the difference between cryptography and steganography?
    cryptography is the entire data, steganography is just a particular part of the data, image, sound channel.
  33. exclusive-OR (XOR) operation
    binary mathematical operation which compares two bits to produce an output
  34. one-time pad
    • unbreakable
    • made up of random values and only used once
  35. cons of one-time pad
  36. initialization vectors
    • random values used with algorithms
    • WEP & TKIP
  37. three types of cryptography
    • hash
    • symmetric
    • asymmetric
  38. hash
  39. symmetric
    one key shared with both parties
  40. asymmetric
    two keys, public and private
  41. SHA (SHA-1)
    160 bit
  42. hashing functions in order
    • MD4
    • MD5
    • SHA (SHA-1)
    • SHA-2
    • SHA-3
    • RIPEMD
    • RIPEMD-160
    • HAVAL
    • Whirlpool
  43. two separate inputs give the same
  44. birthday attack
    if a certain amount of individuals are in a room, it is highly likely that at least two will share birthdays
  45. brute force attack
    every possible combination (there is no system that cannot be broken into)
  46. dictionary attack
    uses all words in the dictionary to reveal passwords
  47. symmetric cryptogrpahy
    • private key
    • only one; both parties share same key
  48. session key, secret key, shared key, private key, same key, single key
    symmetric crytography
  49. cons of symmetric cryptography
    no way to verify who has it because it is shared
  50. pros of symmetric crytography
    • produces smaller file size
    • faster
  51. symmetric key algorithms
    • DES
    • 3DES
    • AES
    • blowfish
    • CAST
    • rivest cipher
    • IDEA
    • skipjack
    • SAFER
  52. data encrypted standard (DES)
    • 56-bit key
    • easily broken
    • lucifer
  53. 3DES (triple-DES)
    • upgrade of DES
    • 168-bit key
  54. advanced encryption standard (AES)
    • replaced DES
    • key sizes: 128, 192, and 256 bits
    • qualifies for top secret information
    • rijndael
  55. blowfish
    • fastest of symmetric
    • 64-bit
  56. two fish
  57. CAST
    used with pretty good privacy (PGP) and email
  58. pretty good privacy (PGP)
  59. rivest cipher
  60. IDEA
    used in PGP and email
  61. skipjack
    • developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA)
    • can check your emails without your knowledge
    • LEAF
  62. SAFER
  63. whole disk encryption
    every bit of data is encrypted
  64. software
    • bitlocker
    • windows and MAC-OS X
    • checkpoint
  65. asymmetric
    • two keys, public and private
    • public used by sender to encrypt, private used by receiver to decrypt
  66. advantages of asymmetric
    offers digital signatures, integrity check, key exchange, and non-repudiation
  67. disadvantages of asymmetric
    slower than symmetric
  68. diffie-hellman
    • key exchange
    • asymmetric
  69. el gamal
    • based upon duff-hellman
    • encryption, digital signatures, key exchange
    • DSA
    • main drawback is performance
  70. rivest, shamir, adleman (RSA)
    • encryption, digital signatures, key exchange
    • used in PGP (email)
  71. elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)
    • encryption, digital signatures, key exchange
    • ECC 160-bit is equal to 1024-bit RSA key
  72. what three items are used to create the signature
    • e-mail message
    • hashing algorithm
    • sender-s private key
  73. digital signature process (sender)
    • creates email message
    • creates a message hash
    • uses senders private key to encrypt hash
  74. digital signature process (receiver)
    • hashes received message
    • uses sender's public key to decrypt message
    • two hashes compared
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