Criminology Test 1 (chapter One)

  1. The gun control debate is an example of the ________ perspective.
  2. The psychological perspective sees crime primarily as
    A problem Behavior
  3. You are running late to class and there is an exam today. To get to class on time, you drive about 10 miles about the speed limit. This is an example of behavior that is
    Criminal but not deviant
  4. Ultimately, crime is a result of the coming together of inputs provided by all but which of the following?
    The Media
  5. A ________ studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior.
  6. ________ criminology involves taking the results of criminological research and converting it into workable social policy and practice.
  7. Which of the following behaviors are criminal only when committed by a child or youth?
    drinking Alcohol
  8. A(n) ________ of crime attempts to explain all or most forms of criminal conduct through a single, overarching approach.
  9. This book recognizes that crime is not an isolated individual activity but a(n) ________ event.
  10. Which of the following statements about deviance and crime is true?
    Deviant and Criminal Behavior Overlap
  11. ________ is the process by which one acquires the cultural values of one's society
  12. Which one of the following is not one of the definitional perspectives found in contemporary criminology?
  13. Many modern criminologists operate from a(n) ________ perspective.
  14. The social ________ perspective holds that crime manifests from underlying social issues such as poverty, discrimination, and pervasive family violence.
  15. Which of the following crime reduction or prevention strategies is most characteristic of the social problems perspective?
    government-funded initiative to enhance educational opportunities among low-income individuals
  16. "Human conduct that is in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws" is a definition of
  17. The social responsibility perspective focuses on the
  18. The General Theory of Crime suggests that all types of criminal and deviant behavior can be explained by a lack of self-control. This is an example of a(n) ________ theory.
  19. Which of the following statements about the social problems perspective is not true?
    It sees crime as a public health problem as well a criminal justice problem
  20. The pluralistic perspective suggests that behaviors are typically criminalized through
    A political Process
  21. ________ is the field of study that is concerned primarily with the causes and consequences of crime.
  22. Which of the following would probably not fall within the field of criminalistics?
    Correctional officer
  23. The ________ perspective says that laws should be enacted to criminalize certain behaviors when members of society generally agree that such laws are necessary
  24. Criminal justice focuses on
    Control of Law Breaking
  25. The belief that crime is an antisocial act of such a nature that repression is necessary to preserve the existing system of society is the basis of the ________ perspective on crime.
  26. ________ treats numbers as having intrinsic scientific value.
    The mystique of Quantity
  27. What is the first step in any research?
    Identify a problem
  28. . ________ are techniques that produce measurable results which can be analyzed statistically.
    Quantitative Method
  29. Which of the following threats to external validity is an example of the problem of reactive effects of experiment arrangements?
    Inmates in a prison are aware that they are part of a study on prison violence and modify their behavior as a result of this awareness
  30.  ________ research is undertaken simply for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge
  31. Which of the following is not a critical ethical issue for criminal justice researchers?
    Application of results to social policy
  32. ter research into the effectiveness of Project D.A.R.E. found that the program was ineffective, publication of the research results was blocked. A representative of the National Institute of Justice stated that they did not agree with one of the study's major findings. What ethical issue applies here?
  33. You are interested in determining whether allowing prison inmates to have televisions in their cells will reduce violent behavior. You measure the rate of violence in the prison, install televisions in all cells, and then measure the rate of violence again one month later to see if there has been any change. What research design have you used?
    A one group pretest -post test design
  34. Which of the following is not a scientific endeavor?
    Interrogating witnesses at a crime scene
  35. After the results of a large research study on police procedures were publicized, the researchers were interested in determining whether the study had affected police policy. The researcher telephoned a large number of big-city police departments and asked a number of questions about department policies and procedures. This is an example of which data-gathering strategy?
    Survey Research
  36. Which of the following is not a use of theory in social scientific thinking?
    Theories can be improved through hypothesis testing
  37. A(n) ________ is a series of interrelated propositions which attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events.
  38. The "evidence" in evidence-based criminology refers to
    experimental scientific findings.
  39. Because the Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment had a major impact on police policy, the National Institute of Justice decided to see if the same results would be found if the study was conducted in other cities around the U.S. This is an example of the issue
  40. Evidence-based criminology is founded upon which research method?
    Randomized, controlled experiments
  41. The ideas of armchair criminologists achieve acclaim in all but which of the following ways?
    The systematic collection of related acts
  42. Which of the following is an example of inferential statistics?
    Test of Significance
  43. Which of the following statements is an example of a theory?
    Poverty is a root cause of illegal drug use
  44. Which of the following threats to internal validity is an example of the problem of experimental mortality?
    During a study comparing two groups of prison inmates, some of the members of one group are released on parole
  45. Which is the only data-gathering technique that does not produce new data?
    Secondary analysis
  46. The ethnical principle of ________ means that research subjects are told about the nature of the research and their role in it.
    informed consent
  47. ________ is the process by which a concept is made measurable or a simple hypothesis is turned into one that is testable.
  48. The statement, "Breaking the cycle of poverty will reduce crime" is an example of a(n)
  49. You are interested in studying how prison inmates and correctional officers interact on a daily basis. To do this, you get a job as a correctional officer in a state prison and work there for several months. What data-gathering strategy are you employing here?
    Participant Observation
  50. . A(n) ________ research design is particularly useful when some aspects of the social setting are beyond the control of the researcher.
  51. Which of the following was not an early demonic era explanation of personal deviance?
    free will
  52. Classical and neoclassical theories have been criticized for lacking an explanation of
    criminal motivation.
  53. David Fogel's justice model is based on the idea that
    offenders deserve punishment because of the choices they make.
  54. Situational choice theory is an example of
    soft determinism.
  55. Situational crime prevention is primarily concerned with
    why crime occurs in specific settings.
  56. Jeremy Bentham's ________ approach emphasizes the determination of behavior based on the amount of pleasure or pain the behavior can be expected to produce
    hedonistic calculus
  57. The belief that the natural human condition at birth is that of a blank slate is attributed to
    John Locke.
  58. According to Cesare Beccaria, the purpose of punishment should be
  59. According to neoclassical criminology, the role of punishment is
    Both Deterrence and retribution
  60. The concept of the social contract was developed by
    Thomas Hobbs
  61. Which type of crime would Cesare Beccaria be most likely to recommend be punished through the use of corporal punishment?
  62. Early Roman Law derived from the
    Twelve Tables
  63. The Code of Hammurabi emphasized which of the following goals of punishment?
  64. The Classical School of criminology attributes crime to
    exercise of free will
  65. According to the key principles of Classical Criminology, the purpose of punishment is to
    deter an offender from future criminal involvement.
  66. Which of the following explanations of criminal behavior would not be acceptable to a positivist studying crime?
    Criminal behavior is due to individual choice
  67. ________ mandates a fixed amount of time to be served for each offense category
    Determinate Sentencing
  68. The present-day debate over abortion is an example of a current use of
    Natural Law
  69. Classical theories have been criticized for being less a theory of crime causation than a philosophy of
  70. Positivism is based on an acceptance of
    hard determinism
  71. rational choice theories have been criticized for
    an overemphasis on individual choice.
  72. ________ focuses on preventing a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality?
    specific deterrence
  73.  Which of the following is an example of a mala in se offense?
  74. An individual who dresses in an unusual way is most likely to be violating a ________ of his or her social group.
  75. ________ refers to a traditional body of unwritten legal precedents created through everyday practice and supported by court decisions
    common law
  76. How does research in suggest diet affects behavior among prison inmates?
    Good nutrition reduces antisocial behavior among prison inmates
  77. Studies focusing on inherited mental degeneration led to the development of ________ criminology.
  78. The studies of the Juke and the Kallikak families emphasized ________ as the primary source of criminality.
  79. The creation of street gangs and separatist groups is an example of the sociobiological principle of
  80. Sociobiology is the systematic study of the ________ basis of all social behavior
  81. According to William Sheldon, ________ have the greatest likelihood of becoming criminal offenders.
  82. According to Konrad Lorenz, much of what we call "crime" is the result of
    overcrowded living conditions
  83. Which of the following social policies was developed during the eugenics movement?
    selective Human Breeding
  84. Which of the following crime control policies would be most likely to be proposed by an early positivist criminologist?
    Forced sterilization of convicted offenders
  85. biological theories believe that crime causation can be understood by studying the interplay of all of the following except
  86. Santa Claus is typical of which of William Sheldon's body types?
  87. ________ theories explain criminality by reference to offenders' body types, genetics, or external physical characteristics.
  88. Which abnormal chromosomal structure is associated with the concept of a "supermale"?
  89. Which of the following is not a criticism of sociobiology?
    It fails to integrate biology into the basic paradigm
  90. Biological theory states that the basic determinants of human behavior are ________ based.
  91. Biological theories tend to focus on ________ as the major determinant in controlling human behavior.
    The brain
  92. Which theoretical paradigm was developed by Edward O. Wilson?
  93. Biological theories assumes that human behavior is rooted in instinctive behavioral responses such as
  94. Phrenology focused on
    the correspondence of the shape of the skull to the shape of the underlying brain.
  95. According to positivism, how is valid knowledge acquired?
  96. The scientific study of the relationships between human physical characteristics and criminality is called
    criminal anthropology
  97. Which of the following research results would provide the strongest evidence for the belief that criminal behavior has a genetic component?
    A larger percentage of MZ twin pairs display the same degree of criminality
  98. Konrad Lorenz' greatest contribution to the study of human behavior was his
    claim that all human behavior is to some degree adapted instinctive behavior.
  99. One concern with early biological theories is their dismissal of the concept of
    free will
  100. According to Lombroso, which category of offenders should include someone who was tempted to commit a crime by a situational or environmental factor?
  101. ________ argues that the propensity for crime commission evolved as part of the male reproductive strategy and a particular neurochemistry characteristic of males increases the probability of male criminality.
    Evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory
  102. When would you expect the relationship between temperature and assaults to be the strongest?
    11 P.M.
  103. Biosocial perspectives are theories of
  104. The level of exposure to lead appears to be a reliable predictor of all but which of the following?
    The seriousness of adult offenses
  105. Freda Adler proposed that
    as women entered nontraditional roles and occupations, their involvement in crime would become closer to that of men.
  106. Which of the following factors probably does not activate chemical switches that regulate gene expression?
    Economic conditions
  107. The myth of the ________ holds that the human mind has no innate traits.
    blank slate
  108. The variable most likely to be related to violent crime is
  109. What is the impact of sugar on behavior?
    The current evidence is unclear
  110. Which of the following brain mechanisms may be involved in aggression?
    all of the above
  111. What have researchers found about the effect of deficient MAOA activity on children?
    Deficient MAOA activity may predispose maltreated children to adult violence
  112. What is the effect of stress on brain structure?
    Long-term exposure to high-level stress can reduce cognition
  113. An offender convicted of ________ is most likely to have a low level of serotonin in the brain.
    a crime of passion
  114. Which of the following foods has not been implicated in the production of criminal violence or antisocial behavior?
    All of the above
  115. The relationship between testosterone and aggressive behavior in young males appears to be moderated by
    the social environment.
  116. Genes ________ human action.
  117. The purpose of the Human Genome Project was to determine the complete sequence of
  118. The myth of the ________ holds that human nature is essentially good.
    noble savage
  119. Research suggests that high dietary intake of ________ by pregnant women may be related to higher IQ levels among children.
    omega-3 fatty acids
  120. Which of the following was not listed by Wilson and Herrnstein as contributing to crime?
    Brain Structure
Card Set
Criminology Test 1 (chapter One)
Criminology 1